To clarify changes in the acid-base balance of Japanese Black (JB) calves from first calving dams after birth,we analyzed blood gas and performed hematological examinations. The subjects were Japanese Black (JB) calves housed in one herd, and they were divided two groups : calves from dams experiencing their first calving (Primipara group; n=14), and calves from dams with previous deliveries (Experienced group; n=16) as the control. Samples were collected from the calves five times, on the day of birth (0), and at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 after birth. We collected arterial blood from the ear arterial vein and venous blood from the jugular vein, and blood gas and hematologic analysis were performed. Significantly high levels of venous carbon dioxide were noted in the Primipara group at weeks 4 and 8. Although no significant variance in alveolar-to-arterial oxygen difference between two groups was found, oxygen content in the arterial blood in the Primipara group was significantly lower than that in the Experienced group at all times. In addition, there were significantly lower levels of Ht, RBC, and Hb in the Primipara group after week 1. These findings suggest that anemia and lower oxygen content in the arterial blood persisted in JB calves from dams experiencing their first calving, compared with calves from dams with previous calving experience.
Footpad dermatitis in meat-type chickens was studied histopathologically and bacteriologically. Footpads with macroscopically severe dermatitis were collected from broiler flocks at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 weeks of age. A histopathological examination showed that ulceration or erosion was detected at high rates regardless of age,and inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in all cases. Crust formation and thickening of the epidermis were found in all of the examined footpads, and multinucleate giant cells were observed in some of them. Fibrosis in the dermis and adipose tissue increased with advancing age. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterium were observed on the surface layer and inside the crusta in the gram-stained sections. Fungal proliferation in the crusta was found in one case. A bacteriological examination revealed that Staphylococcus spp. were isolated frequently from the deep layer of the lesions, and the predominant strains were S. lentus and S. simulans.
Twenty-seven cases of feline ureterolithiasis, which were presented to the Department of Nephrology and Urology, Azabu University Veterinary Teaching Hospital over the past ten years, were retrospectively analyzed. As reported in overseas studies, the prevalence of ureteral caliculi in cats has increased over the years. The mean age of occurrence was 5.6 ±2.9 years, and 81.5% of cases were purebred cats. Laboratory and clinical data indicate that nonspecific clinical symptoms, azotemia, hypercalcemia, asymptomatic occult hematuria, and urinary calcium oxalate are potential predictive factors for ureterolithiasis. A combination of different imaging modalities seems to increase reliability in diagnosing ureterolithiasis. Unilateral ureterolithiasis was associated with parenchymal damage in the contralateral kidney due to either congenital renal disease or a previous history of occlusive nephropathy. All surgically removed ureteroliths were calcium oxalate. As the overall incidence of calcium oxalate urolith is increasing in cats, it is likely that the number of cases of feline ureterolithiasis will continue to rise in the future.
The usefulness of determining canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus (CAV) antibody titers as parameters for the interfusion of blood components into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (reference antibodies) for the serological diagnosis of canine distemper encephalitis (CDE) was studied. The ratio of the “serum titer/CSF titer (S/C)" value for the CPV antibody to that for the CAV antibody was 2 : 1, 1 : 1, or 1 : 2 in 30 dogs examined, which was within an acceptable measurement error range, suggesting that similar results could be obtained with either of the two reference antibodies. In 29 dogs with neurologic signs, in which the S/C values for the canine distemper virus (CDV) antibody were lower than 256, a diagnostic criterion for CDE, only one showed an S/C value for CDV antibody lower than that for the reference antibody (1 : 8) and was diagnosed with CDE. The remaining 28 dogs showed ratios of an S/C value for the CDV antibody to that for the reference antibody within the measurement error range. Accordingly, these dogs were not diagnosed with CDE. On the basis of these findings, it was shown that examination of the CDV antibody alone increases the risk of misdiagnosis of CDE.
A 13-year-old, mixed-breed dog presented with swelling of the left nictitating membrane and lower palpebral conjunctiva. An excisional biopsy suggested a diagnosis of lipoma. Orbital ultrasonography and computed tomography showed that the mass was extended from the posterior part of the orbit to the subconjunctival region. The mass was removed by surgical traction and resection. The diagnosis of lipoma was made by histopathological examination, and recurrence has not been detected to date.