Clinicopathological findings of eight cases of idiopathic hydropericardium characterized by blood-like fluid(HBF-group) that were confirmed by necropsy were retrospectively summarized and compared with those of seven cows with pericarditis. Although the numbers of cows that showed edema in the HBF-group were larger than those in the pericarditis-group, the frequency of other clinical signs in the two groups was similar. Echocardiography revealed a reduced quantity of fibrin in the pericardial cavity in the HBF-group compared with the pericarditis-group. In blood and blood chemical examinations, cows in the HBF-group showed significantly weak inflammation findings in terms of the numbers of white blood cells and neutrophils, albumin-globulin ratio, albumin concentration, and gamma-globulin ratio compared with those in pericarditis-group cows. Increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity were recorded in both groups; however, GGT in the HBF-group was significantly higher than that in the pericarditis-group. Although diagnosis of blood-like pericardial fluid is difficult with clinical signs alone, findings such as reduced fibrin in the pericardial cavity, weaker inflammation findings in the blood and blood chemical examination, and increased ALP and GGT activity would be helpful for a differential diagnosis with pericarditis.
To evaluate the lying area for cows, the stall standing index (SSI) generally used in free-stall barns was monitored in tie-stall barns. The SSI was monitored every ten minutes at four farms after feeding. The SSI values reached their minimum (about 10%) at 90 minutes after feeding on all farms. The SSI at 90 minutes after feeding was significantly associated with the incidence rate of claw horn diseases (CHD) (P <0.01), displacement of the abomasum (DA) (P <0.05), mortality and culling (P <0.01) over the past three years in 39 tie-stall barns. The SSI at 90 minutes after feeding on the farm which had the highest rate of CHD, DA, mortality, and culling was 47.1%, although this value was the minimum. This study suggests that the SSI is an index for the lying area for cows in tie-stall barns as well.
In this study, we conducted a morphological analysis of 61 dachshunds, comprising 38 Normal and 23 Pes Varus dachshunds. In the analysis, we used the mechanical Caudal Proximal Tibial Angle (mCaPTA), mechanical Cranial Distal Tibial Angle (mCrDTA), mechanical Medial Proximal Tibial Angle (mMPTA), and mechanical Medial Distal Tibial Angle (mMDTA). The mMDTA and mCrDTA differed significantly between Normal and Pes Varus dachshunds. In Pes Varus dachshunds, varus and anteflexion deformity of the tibial were noted. And in a scatter plot of mMDTA, Normal and Pes Varus dachshunds were divided into two groups by mMDTA86 °. This suggests that mMDTA may be useful as an objective index in differentiating between normal dachshunds and those with pes varus.
A 3-year-old spayed ferret presented with a primary symptom of difficulty prehending food. Severe periodontitis in the right maxillary second and third premolar roots were observed. After matter sample was collected from the bottoms of the periodontal pockets, dental scaling, and tooth extraction were performed. The positive presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia was observed using a polymerase chain reaction method for identifying 8 common human periodontopathic bacteria, with lengths of 364 bp and 510 bp measured by direct sequencing, respectively. The sequences showed 100% and 99.8% similarity to the 16S rRNA gene in P. gulae and T. forsythia, respectively. This study shows, for the first time, molecular detection in a ferret of anaerobic bacteria from periodontal pockets identical to those found in humans, dogs, or cats.
Escherichia coli that showed resistance to third-generation cephalosporin (3rd CEP) was isolated from two dogs with pyoderma, a dog with subcutaneous abscess, a dog with surgical site infection, a dog with anal sac infection, and a dog with cystitis admitted to an animal hospital between March and December, 2011. The 3rd CEP-resistant E. coli isolates were also resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams; and susceptible to latamoxef, meropenem, and amikacin. Although five of six (83%) 3rd CEP-resistant E. coli strains were susceptible to fosfomycin (FOM), 83% were resistant to levofloxacin. All cases infected with 3rd CEP-resistant E. coli were resolved after administration of an oral antimicrobial drug such as FOM that showed efficacy. Recognition of 3rd CEP-resistant E. coli in dogs is also important in public health issues, and attention needs to be paid to the existence of 3rd CEP-resistant E. coli in animal hospitals.
A 5-year, 9-month-old female California sea lion (Zalophus califomianus) began feeding poorly five months ago. It presented with swelling in front of the right orbit and drainage from the gingival mucosa in the right maxillary canine part. The swelling was improved by administration of an antibiotic and feeding also resumed. However, a relapse subsequently occurred. Because bone resorption was observed around the root apex of the maxillary right canine in a radiographic examination under husbandry training, an anesthetic chamber by isoflurane was introduced, and general anesthesia was maintained after intubation. Oral examination and treatment were then performed. Oral examination revealed pulp exposure from wear in many teeth. A fistula was recognized in the buccal gingival mucosa where the root apex of the maxillary right canine was located. When the maxillary right canine and all teeth with exposed, dental pulp was extracted and the sockets curetted, and the socket of the right maxillary canine and the fistula were penetrated. Therefore, this case was diagnosed as an internal dental fistula by periapical lesion of this tooth. Ten months after the operation the sea lion was in good condition. There are many pulp exposures by attrition in large exhibit animals. Improvement of the rearing environment, and diagnosis and treatment by routine oral and radiographic examination are therefore necessary.