During the 25 months from March 2011 to March 2013, a total of 9,362 medulla oblongata samples collected from dead adult cattle (two years or older) and used for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) surveillance at 2,203 farms in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The samples were utilized to investigate the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in the area. BVD viruses (BVDVs) were detected from 36 cattle (0.38%) on 31 farms (1.41%). A significant difference was observed in each BVDV detection rate of 22 cattle (1.72%) that were two years old at death and 25 dairy farms (1.76%). In comparison to the results of this research, the percentage of genotype 2 in isolated viruses was high (22.2%). These results suggest that monitoring the infection in dairy cattle and the spread of genotype 2 viruses is important for eradication of BVDV in Iwate. It was also concluded that medulla oblongata samples obtained from dead cattle are useful for efficiently investigating BVDV prevalence and epidemiology.
A regional control program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) was initiated in 2006 in the town of Nemuro, Hokkaido, Japan. All dairy heifers were immunized annually with live (L) and killed (K) vaccines (LK method). After 42 months of LK, 90% of cattle were seropositive, with neutralizing antibody titer for BVDV. Samples of bulk tank milk from all 880 dairy herds in the region were screened annually for BVDV through a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Fifty-six persistently infected (PI) heifers were identified in the first 6 years, and the number of PI heifers then decreased every year. Virus isolation from the sera of all heifers raised in public pastures was performed annually. Seven PI animals out of 12,349 heifers were identified as being raised in public pastures, and these animals were immediately slaughtered. This program led to a decrease in the birth of PI animals, and the LK vaccination method had also protected fetuses from BVDV infection since 2008. These results indicated that this regional program based on the vaccination and slaughter of PI heifers was significantly effective as the first step in controlling BVD.
Eighteen small dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy were divided into two groups. The first group (MAR-MOR, n＝9) was treated with a combination of maropitant and morphine and the second (MOR, n＝9) was given normal saline solution and morphine. The treatment's efficacy in reducing the required intraoperative doses of isoflurane was examined, as well as its inhibitory effect on vomiting caused by morphine. The incidence of vomiting caused by administration of morphine was 11.1% in the MAR-MOR group and 66.6% in the MOR group, tending to be significantly lower in the former (P＜0.05). The mean intraoperative dose of isoflurane requirement was 1.74±0.13% in the MAR-MOR group and 1.91±0.12% in the MOR group. A reduction of the required doses of isoflurane of approximately 8.9% was successfully achieved in the MAR-MOR group (P＜0.05). A reduction of as much as approximately 13.1% was achieved at 50 minutes of surgery (P＜0.05). The findings of this study confirmed that maropitant had a reducing effect on the required doses of isoflurane and an inhibitory effect on vomiting caused by morphine.
A 10-year-old castrated American shorthair cat was presented with a swollen left mandibular region, which by fine needle aspiration (FNA) was initially suspected to be salivary mucocele. Reevaluation of the lesion after three months by FNA revealed atypical lymphoid cells with a background of mucus, raising suspicion of lymphoma. Complete remission was achieved via a six-month COP chemotherapy protocol. Two months after completion of chemotherapy, atypical lymphoid cells were again aspirated from the swollen tissue at the same site. The lesion was resected and submitted for histopathological examination. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma was diagnosed based on the typical morphology of neoplastic cells and results of immunohistochemistry. Most neoplastic cells were reactive to MUM1 (marker for plasma cells), while a part of the cell population was positive for CD79a (B lymphocytes), and negative for CD3 (T lymphocytes). Though remission was not achieved by administration of chemotherapeutic agents, the cat maintained quality of life for about six months.
Whether or not Sarcocystis fayeri sarcocysts induces diarrhea was investigated via oral inoculation of bradyzoites into rabbits. When inoculated with 5.5×106 bradyzoites, the rabbits had loose stool with some clinical signs including anorexia and depression. The rabbits receiving 1.5×107 and 5.5×107 bradyzoites showed watery stool. All of the latter died within 48 hours. Groups of the rabbits given 1.5×107 bradyzoites were sacrificed one, two, three, six and nine hours after inoculation for histopathological analysis over time. The rabbits did not show any clinical signs and pathological changes until two hours later. By three hours post-inoculation, the rabbits revealed some clinical signs of anorexia, lost drinking behavior and depression that lasted until nine hours. Upon histopathological examination, apoptosis and desquamation of epithelial cells were found in the small intestine of the rabbits sacrificed at three to nine hours post-inoculation. The rabbits examined at six and nine hours also showed moderate to severe atrophy of villi as well as circumferential edema of submucosa. Diarrhea appeared only after a period of nine hours. These results suggest that S. fayeri sarcocysts induced diarrhea subsequent to acute damage of the intestinal mucosa in the rabbit.
Under limited financial and human resources, in order to obtain rationale on how food safety inspection should be performed, by using a publically available risk-ranking software tool called “Risk Ranger”, risk-ranking levels under ordinal inspections of three food-pathogen combinations (Campylobacter in fried chicken, Salmonella spp. in fried eggs, and Staphylococcus aureus in potato salad) were estimated. By enhancing food safety inspections, changes of risk-rankings of the three combinations were estimated. Risk-ranking outputs of three combinations under the ordinal inspections were estimated as follows: 57 (Campylobacter), 52 (Salmonella spp.), and 48 (Staphylococcus aureus). If certain parameters in processing steps are modified by guidance provided through intensive food safety inspections, certain combinations of parameters (e.g., improvement of effect of processes, reduction of probability of recontamination, and improvement of the post-processing control system) indicate significant risk reductions. We think the results of this study should be utilized for performing more effective and efficient food safety inspections.