The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between teat skin cleanliness just after cleaning and the hygienic quality of raw milk during milking as evaluated by an ATP-bioluminescence assay. The teat skin of 180 cows after cleaning was tested using both an ATP-bioluminescence assay and a bacteriological swab test. Furthermore, 8 cows were examined by an ATP-bioluminescence assay at each of 35 dairy farms with respect to the cleanliness of their teat skin. As a standard ATP value, the data obtained from the bacteria-negative group (n＝83) was used to categorize the results into 3 classes (ATP ranks): LOW, below average (L); MID, between average and average ＋SD (M); and HIGH, above average ＋SD (H), respectively. These 3 different ATP ranks were examined to verify their correlation to the bacteriological swab test values and the hygienic quality of raw milk at 35 dairy farms. The bacterial numbers based on the bacteriological swab test on the teat skin increased (P＜0.01) along with the ATP ranks. Similarly, the somatic cell counts (P＜0.01) and the bacterial counts (P＜0.01) in the raw milk increased along with the 3 different ATP ranks. Therefore, during milking an ATP-bioluminescence assay is a convenient and reliable method for evaluating the cleanliness of teat skin just after cleaning, and is equivalent to a bacteriological swab test. In conclusion, this study suggested that the ATP standard value for teat skin cleanliness is under 500 RLU using an ATP-bioluminescence assay on the teats.
Nasal swabs from clinically healthy cattle for fattening were bacteriologically examined from 2004 to 2012 in Yamagata prefecture. The pathogenic bacteria described below were found in 990 out of 1,098 cattle (90.2%); Mannheimia haemolytica (Mh) was isolated from 225 heads, Pasteurella multocida (Pm) was isolated from 835 heads, Mycoplasma bovis (Mb) was isolated from 421 heads and Ureaplasma diversum (Ud) was isolated from 270 heads, respectively. Both enrofloxacin (ERFX) and florfenicol to Mh and Pm isolates, showing a minimum 50% inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of ≦0.031～0.5 mg/l and a MIC90 of ≦0.031～2 mg/l. Mb and Ud had high sensitivity to ERFX, showing a MIC50 of 0.2～0.78 mg/l and a MIC90 of 0.25～3.13 mg/l, but Mb showed remarkably low sensitivity to macrolides (MIC range; vs. TS 1～100 mg/l≦, vs. TMS 2～128 mg/l≦).
We collected blood samples from 45 Japanese Black calves (healthy calves, 35; diseased calves, 10; 1-30 weeks old) and measured their blood cell counts and erythrocyte indices both manually and using an automated hematology analyzer. Although the correlation between the values derived from a manual count and that using an automated hematology analyzer were low for red blood cell counts (r＝0.426) and platelet counts (r＝0.513), a high correlation was observed for white blood cell counts (r＝0.705). The results of this study proved that counting blood cells in calves using an automated hematology analyzer, whose reliability had previously been considered to be low, was reliable to a certain degree using an improved automated hematology analyzer.
A 17-year-old male cat presented with episodes of anorexia and ataxia. Blood examination showed elevated alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, and severe hypokalemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a left renal mass and bilateral adrenal gland enlargement. Plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were respectively elevated. From these findings this case was suspected as a secondary hyperaldosteronism, probably due to a left renal mass. Treatment, ACE inhibitor, and spironolactone improved hypokalemia and clinical signs.
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion (SIADH) is a rarely reported disorder in small animals. SIADH occurs following a primary disease in the brain and causes hyponatremia, serum hypo-osmolality, and a high level of sodium in the urine due to inappropriate secretion of ADH. In this case, a female toy poodle that had symptoms of hydrocephalus fulfilled almost all diagnostic criteria for SIADH including notable hyponatremia and serum hypo-osmolality. A magnetic resonance imaging test also indicated that the dog had hydrocephalus. The conclusion was that the dog was suspected as having SIADH originating from hydrocephalus.
We surveyed the actual conditions of drinking water facilities in livestock holding areas, as we felt livestock should be supplied with drinking water. We sent questionnaires to 116 meat inspection centers from September 2010 to January 2011, and collected answers and comments from 159 slaughterhouses. Of the 14 abattoirs in Hokkaido, livestock were not supplied with drinking water in the holding area at all. Of the 145 abattoirs outside of Hokkaido, 62 out of the 115 (53.9%) that slaughtered bovines had facilities and supplied drinking water. This rate rose to 78.8% at 33 larger abattoirs that slaughtered more than 50 bovines per day. However, only 19 out of the 129 abattoirs that slaughtered swine (14.7%) had these facilities. Many respondents said that swine were able to drink water from showers and hoses in the holding area, but we did not consider these to be drinking water facilities. Both in and outside of Hokkaido, 25 abattoirs received guidance from municipal meat inspection centers on supplying drinking water for livestock, but 83 did not receive instruction. The most important reason why they did not receive guidance was that Japanese legislation on abattoirs does not regulate drinking water for livestock. This survey also revealed many opinions that the livestock environment in abattoirs should be improved from the viewpoint of animal welfare.