It was demonstrated that platelet rich plasma (PRP), collected from patients could be an effective treatment method for sole ulcers with alginate gels containing PRP. However, this method was deficient in terms of its prolonged effect. We therefore used gelatin hydrogel microsphere (GM) as a controlled release material and investigated the effect of treatment for sole ulcers. This study compared a test group treated with alginate gel containing a GM-PRP mix (PRP group, n=10) and another group treated with alginate gel alone (control group, n=9). The percentage reduction in the size of the hoof defect in the PRP group was approximately 45%, 17%, 5% at 1, 2, 3 weeks after treatment respectively. Cornification was promoted more significantly in the PRP group at each week than it was in the control group. The pain from pressure in the PRP disappeared at 2 weeks after treatment, while in the control group it remained at 3 weeks after treatment. From these results, GM containing PRP could be an effective treatment method for sole ulcers in dairy cows.
The aim of this study is to clarify the critical control points (CCPs) in milking procedures (MPs) for milk hygiene on dairy farms. Video records of MPs on 33 dairy farms were analyzed, the precision was determined, and the methods of teat cleaning were classified into three : “twisting”, “wrapping” and “slipping down.” The precision of each MP and the methods of teat cleaning were compared to annual data on bulk milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and total bacterial counts (TBC). Farms with “twisting” (10 farms) were found to have lower average bulk-milk SCC than farms with “wrapping” (6 farms) and “slipping down” (17 farms), at 156,000/ml, 219,000/ml and 255,000/ml, respectively (P<0.01). For the rate of teat surface coverage in post-dipping, a lower SCC was observed on farms with a “high” rate (10 farms) than those with a “mid” rate (18 farms) or “poor” rate (5 farms), at 161,000/ml, 217,000/ml and 344,000/ml, respectively (P<0.05). The other procedures produced no significant differences in the SCC. Because of the low average TBC on most dairy farms (<30,000 cfu/ml), there is no significant difference among the different precisions or methods of MPs. To maintain high hygienic milk yielding, CCPs during MPs are cleaning the teat surface by “twisting” and “deep coverage in post-dipping” which can remove filth completely, disinfecting the teat surface perfectly.
The objective of this study was to obtain the optimal fecal pool method for the screening of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) infection with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Initially, the effect of pooling on the recovery rate of Map DNA was evaluated using a fecal sample from experimentally Map-infected cattle. Map DNA concentrations extracted and purified from pooled fecal samples were increased in proportion to the volume of feces, and almost all Map DNA was recovered without any PCR inhibitory effect by increasing fecal volume. In the qPCR test at a pooling rate of 1 infected plus 2 to 5 uninfected cattle, all pooled samples were qPCR positive, and the calculated Map DNA concentrations of 0.0022 to 0.0024 pg/PCR from pooled samples were almost the same as that of one infected cattle up to 5pool (1 infected plus 4 uninfected cattle). These results suggest that the sensitivity of qPCR is not affected by fecal sample pooling up to 5pool. This pooling and centrifugation method seems likely to be useful for herd screening and improving the sensitivity of the Map qPCR test.
Histiocytic sarcoma has been reported in many breeds, with a predilection for Bernese mountain dogs, Flat-Coated Retrievers, Rottweilers, Golden retrievers, Labrador Retrievers being in Europe and the United States. This study presents results from a case-control study of 24 dogs with histiocytic sarcoma at Gifu University from April 2010 through April 2012. Among the 24 dogs, the most common breeds were Pembroke Welsh Corgis (8 cases). The highest odds ratios of histolytic sarcoma were found in Flat-Coated Retrievers (25.20), Bernese mountain dogs (17.92) and Pembroke Welsh Corgis (5.41). Although Pembroke Welsh Corgis were at lower risk than the other two breeds, the diagnostic population of histolytic sarcoma in Pembroke Welsh Corgis was larger. Pembroke Welsh Corgis are clinically important in the onset of histolytic sarcoma because the breed is very popular in Japan.
An 18-month-old, neutered female West Highland White Terrier was presented for urinary incontinence during sleep. Urinary incontinence was observed 8 months after neutering. There were no significant findings on clinical examinations. Because hormone-responsive urinary incontinence was diagnosed presumptively based on the information provided by the owner, oral oestradiol therapy was started. As a result of the measurement of serum oestradiol concentration at the initial presentation, the level of serum oestradiol was lower than found in healthy dogs. After oestradiol was orally administered a total of three times, the dog has been asymptomatic for more than two years. Mild dermatitis appeared temporarily as a side effect. At 753 days after the initial presentation, the dog was generally in good condition without any sign of recurrence. The result of this case suggested that oral oestradiol therapy for hormone-responsive urinary incontinence could replace conventional medical therapy in terms of treatment effect, reduction of frequency of administration and side effects.
One hundred and thirty-nine reptiles consisting of 99 tortoises, 32 lizards and 8 snakes sold at pet stores in Yamaguchi prefecture were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. A total of 50.4% samples were positive for isolation of Salmonella spp., and the isolation frequencies were 42% in tortoises, 69% in lizards and 75% in snakes, respectively. The 82 strains collected from 70 positive samples were classified into four Salmonella subspecies (enterica [subsp. I], salamae [II], diarizonae [IIIb] and houtenae [IV]) and 53 serotypes. The 59 strains in subsp. I were typed to 38 serotypes. Serovars Abony, Pomona and Thompson were dominant in tortoises, and serovars Fluntern and Kentucky were dominant in lizards. The antimicrobial susceptibility with 12 drugs were examined for the 82 isolates with the result that 50% (41 isolates) were resistant to one or more drugs. Among the resistant isolates, one strain showed multiple resistances to the eight drugs examined. Two strains obtained from two different lizards exhibited resistance against new quinolones antibiotics such as CPFX and TFLX.