The aim of this article was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in a clinical diagnosis of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in Holstein-Friesian cows. The distended size of the dorsal pouch of the distal interphalangeal joint was observed in all cases. The mean distances between the dorsal or palmar pouch of the distal interphalangeal joint and the surface of P2 was 7.9 mm (range 5.8-12.3 mm) and 13.8 mm (10.8-16.4 mm), respectively. The ultrasonography from the palmar side also delineated sole abscess, rupture of deep flexor tendon, distal sesamoiditis and effusion of the tendon sheath. These results suggest that ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic method to add more information to the diagnosis of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in cattle.
Five fetuses of sows in the consistent management hoggery, which will breed 572 sows in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were miscarried in March 2013, and pathological appraisals were carried out since the frequency of occurrence was higher than usual. Petechial hemorrhage of the entire skin, hemorrhage of subcutaneous parts of the skin and lungs and white macules on the liver of aborted fetus No. 3 were observed at necropsy. No bacteria were isolated. The leptospira flaB gene was detected in the main internal organs of the miscarried pigs. The sow had 5,120 times the antibodies and the humors of the fetuses of the sow had 80 times the antibodies for Leptospira interrogans serovar Hebdomadis. Focal necrosis of the liver, interstitial nephritis and purulent dermatitis were observed histologically in fetus No. 3. Numerous leptospira-like spirochaetes were observed around the blood vessels of the main organs, thymus, digestive organs, and skin through Warthin-Starry staining. Immunohistochemically, L. Hebdomadis antigens were detected in the same part. According to the above results, the present cases were diagnosed as miscarriage due to L. Hebdomadis infection.
This study investigated the usefulness of 4-slice helical Computed Tomography in making an accurate diagnosis of tumors occurring in 15 dogs. The detection rate of tumors, tumor stages, lymph node size and metastasis, ulceration, and characteristic images of each tumor stage were evaluated. Accurate diagnostic rates of the presence of a tumor, tumor stage, and metastasis to lymph nodes, were 93.3%, 86.7%, and 100%, respectively. The accuracy of ulceration detection was 55.6% and 22.2%, by multiplanar reconstruction and by virtual endoscopy, respectively. Four-slice helical computed tomography scan is a valuable tool for the detection of tumors and for the evaluation of tumor staging, lymph node size, and metastasis. Since multiplanar reconstruction did not detect ulceration with sufficient accuracy, another imaging technique would be essential.
A 7-month-old Japanese domestic cat was presented with white subcutaneous nodules on the left forepaw. Clinical pathology revealed persistent hyperphosphatemia with normocalcemia. Renal failure, hyperthyroidism, and primary hypoparathyroidism were ruled out, although the vitamin D3 level was higher in the initial examination. The cat was given a phosphorus-restricted diet, followed by a phosphorus absorbent (lanthanum carbonate). After the administration, the blood inorganic phosphate (iP) levels significantly decreased with a decrease in calcium × phosphate (Ca × iP) product. Vitamin D levels were also in the normal range. Clinical signs have remained stable, although the blood iP levels are still above the normal range. Calcinosis cutis (without lameness) has been observed in the catʼs paws periodically for more than 2.5 years since the first onset. The cause of the hyperphosphatemia in this case was not determined.
The prevalence of Capnocytophaga canimorsus and C. cynodegmi in the oral cavities of 120 dogs and 80 cats was investigated using species-specific PCR and culture methods between 2011 and 2012. The PCR detected the C. canimorsus gene in 62% of the dogs and 49% of the cats, whereas the C. cynodegmi gene was detected in 82% of the dogs and 86% of the cats. C. canimorsus was isolated from 4% of the dogs and 4% of the cats, whereas C. cynodegmi was isolated from 38% of the dogs and 41% of the cats. Capnocytophaga spp. from oral swab samples was correctly identified using both the species-specific PCR and culture methods; however, C. cynodegmi was not detected by only the species-specific PCR in some samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates to five drugs were examined, with 10 strains showing resistance to ampicillin, one strain showing resistance to erythromycin and one strain showing resistance to ciprofloxacin. Accordingly, penicillin-based antibiotics with a β-lactamase inhibitor are recommended for antimicrobial treatment for Capnocytophaga infections.