In bovine embryos, the effect of assisted hatching (AH) processing using pronase, which is a protein-splitting enzyme, was verified for the purpose of improving the pregnancy rate. As a result, in the culture examination using morulae produced by in vitro fertilization, it was confirmed that pronase treatment did not have a negative influence on blastocyst development, and that it also significantly improved the hatching rate of embryos in examinations of both fresh and frozen-thawed embryos. Furthermore, in the embryo transfer examination using embryos recovered from superovulated Japanese Black donors, it was suggested that pronase treatment possibly improves the pregnancy rate following the transfer of poor-quality fresh embryos. In conclusion, AH processing using pronase is a simple method that does not require special equipment or technology for on-farm application, and it is an effective method of improving the pregnancy rate of poor-quality fresh embryos.
This study was conducted to reveal the infectious route of vertebral abscesses in broiler chickens. Twelve broiler chickens before shipment for meat inspection (Group A), two 74-day-old chickens (Group B) and two adult white leghorn chickens (Group C) were used. The air sacs of the chickens were examined using X-ray computed tomography (CT), and then the chickens were pathologically examined. Most of the vertebrae of group C showed pneumatization, while the pneumatization of groups A and B was restricted to between the cervical and third thoracic vertebrae. No pneumatization was recognized at the sixth thoracic vertebrae for groups A and B, although this vertebra was destroyed by vertebral abscesses, and this was confirmed by CT and pathological examinations. Therefore, it is suggested that the infectious route for the vertebral abscesses was unlikely to be through air sac infection.
To investigate changes in the ruminal fluid components in cattle after accessing a salt lick containing sodium bicarbonate, we measured the ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in two groups of cattle. Four rumen-cannulated Holstein steers (five months old) were divided into two groups. The licking group (LG) was freely fed a block-type agent containing 50% sodium bicarbonate and 40% salt, whereas the oral administration group (OG) had sodium bicarbonate powder administered orally after feeding. The ruminal pH was measured continuously every ten minutes using a wireless radio transmission pH sensor. Ruminal fluid and blood were collected prior to the experiment and on day 14. The 24-hour mean ruminal pH of the LG was significantly higher (P＜0.05) than that of the OG on day 0 to day 3. Circadian changes in the ruminal pH in the LG tended to be stable, and the ruminal pH was slightly high after feeding in the morning and evening compared with the values in the OG. The ruminal VFA concentration and serum components did not differ significantly between the two groups. The results of the present study demonstrate that licking the block-type agent reduced the ruminal pH of SARA-affected steers more effectively than the oral administration of the same amount of sodium bicarbonate powder.
A 38-month-old Holstein cow showed a progressive neurological symptom, with tilting to the left side. Unilateral compressive lesions from the medulla oblongata to the pons were suspected based on the history, the lack of reactions of the left light reflex and left pinna reflex, and delayed findings in III to V of the left ear in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials. A yellow embrittlement lesion in the left pons was found at necropsy. Although the lesion was a tumor, the exact origin of the tumor could not be determined by histopathological examination using several immunohistochemical techniques.
The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in the morphology finding obtained in noncontact type meibography, and to compare the histopathological findings of the meibomian gland with the meibography findings in dogs using noncontact-type meibography. We examined 88 eyes in 46 Shih Tzu dogs with no ocular symptoms, and sorted them into three groups according to age. The rate of appearance of atrophy findings and loss of meibomian gland findings were higher in the middle-aged group and the old-aged group than in the juvenile group. Further, we examined the histopathological findings of areas where changes in the meibomian findings were evident in four dogs. The results suggested the canine meibomian gland form was closely related to aging, and the meibography findings were correlated with meibomian histopathological findings.
This report describes a case of a Chihuahua that was definitively diagnosed with neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL) upon autopsy after presenting with visual disturbance as an initial clinical symptom. At the initial exam, the present case exhibited no neurological abnormalities except for visual disturbance. Ophthalmological examination indicated abnormal findings in the retrobulbar conjunctiva, cornea and optic papilla but these findings were not related to the present symptoms. Head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted in order to confirm central visual impairment indicated severe cerebral atrophy typical of Chihuahuas with NCL and meningeal enhancement with contrast medium. As was the case here, Chihuahuas with NCL may initially present with visual disturbance. If visual disturbance is detected in a young Chihuahua, a head MRI, which is useful for diagnosing NCL in Chihuahuas, should be quickly conducted so as to avoid misdiagnosis as an ocular disease.
Sarcocysts with a thick wall were detected from the striated muscles of 1 out of 67 cattle slaughtered in Ishikawa Prefecture. Cysts had a wall that was 3 to 4 μm thick and provided with palisade-like villar protrusions. The villar protrusions were 6.4～7.8×0.8～1.2 μm in size and had microtubules in the core. The sarcocysts were identified as Sarcocystis hominis.