A Holstein dairy cow was diagnosed with cervical ectopia cordis at five days old. It was necropsied at seven years and one month due to infertility and chronic mastitis after calving twice. A large amount of fat tissue was observed under the skin of the cervical region. The pericardium was shaped like a hammock and existed from the part 33 cm caudally at the first cervical vertebra to the fourth rib. The heart was formed in a semilunar fashion and turned the apex cranially and the base was directed caudally. Hypertrophy of the right ventricle was found regarding morphological aberration of the heart and bicarotid anomaly, patent ductus arteriosus, and dilation of the pulmonary artery were observed through great vessel abnormality. The configuration of the sternum was an inverted triangle consisting of 17 bilateral sternebrae. One cow with this disease died because of other defects and circulatory disorder associated with the growth. However, this cow showed positional anomaly of the heart and angiectopia but long-term survival was possible due to protection of the heart by a great deal of fat tissue of the cervical region and securement of blood circulation by hypertrophy of the right ventricle.
A 15-month-old Japanese Black steer with severe growth insufficiency died after a six-month follow-up following its diagnosis with polycythemia. The red blood cell count had remained high during the follow-up. At necropsy, a thickened right ventricular wall and ventricular septal defect of the heart were confirmed. Histopathological examination revealed a pulmonary hypertension lesion in the lung, segmental glomerular lesion characterized by mesangiolysis in the kidney, scattered hemorrhage and focal necrosis in the cerebrum, and fibrinoid degeneration of the ileac submucosal arterial wall. Congenital heart disease, secondary lung lesion, and hypoxemia were considered to be a trigger for the renal glomerular lesion. This case is the first report on bovine renal glomerular lesion associated with congenital heart disease.
Nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis characterized by multinucleated giant cell formation was observed in three pigs diagnosed with Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD). The animals were emaciated and underdeveloped, and necropsied between July 2010 and March 2011, with no neurological signs noted. On the polymerase chain reaction, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) DNA was detected in the brain, lungs, tonsils and serum of all pigs. Histopathological examination revealed perivascular to parenchymal histiocytic infiltration with sparse multinucleated giant cell formation in the cerebrum and brainstem. Central nervous system lesions were found to be negative for the PCV2 antigen and DNA using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. Electron microscopic findings showed the multinucleated giant cells in the cerebrum to have a large number of lysosomes, indicating their derivation from macrophages. Granulomatous lymphadenitis with multinucleated giant cells was seen in all three animals, suggesting that central nervous system lesions developed in response to the systemic granulomatous lesion associated with PCVAD.
In Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bacteria-infected dogs and cats in one hospital, 18% of Escherichia coli (32 strains), 44% of Klebsiellapneumoniae (14 strains), 43% of Citrobacter spp. (three strains), 2% of Proteus mirabilis (one strain), and 12% of Enterobacter spp. (three strains) were third-generation cephalosporin (3rdCEP)-resistant. The 3rdCEP-sensitive Enterobacteriaceae-infected cases had been resolved after mainly administration of CEPs and fluoroquinolones. The 3rdCEP-resistant E. coli-infected cases were administered fosfomycin (FOM) and doxycycline (DOXY), the 3rdCEP-resistant K. pneumoniae-infected cases were administered DOXY, amikacin (AMK) and faropenem, the 3rdCEP-resistant Citrobacter spp.-infected cases were administered AMK, FOM, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the 3rdCEP-resistant P. mirabilis-infected cases were administered chloramphenicol, and the 3rdCEP-resistant Enterobacter spp.-infected cases were administered ofloxacin. Most cases were resolved after administration of these susceptible antimicrobial drugs.
Therapeutic methods and treatment outcome of methicillin-susceptible (MS) and methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus infection in dogs and cats were evaluated. MS staphylococci were susceptible to many antimicrobial drugs and most cases were resolved after mainly administration of cephalosporins. More than 90%, 52%, and 34% of the MR Staphylococcus intermedius group were susceptible to tetracycline antibiotics, chloramphenicol, and fosfomycin (FOM), respectively. More than 80% of MR coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were susceptible to tetracycline antibiotics and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (ST), and 47～69% of MRCNS were susceptible to ofloxacin, CP, gentamicin, amikacin, and FOM. One-hundred percent, 80%, 67%, and 50% of MR Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were susceptible to ST, CP, GM, and doxycycline, respectively. Most cases of MR staphylococci were resolved after administration of these susceptible antimicrobial drugs.
A total of 250 commercial chicken meat samples were examined for the contamination rates of Campylobacter and Salmonella species and the most probable number (MPN) in the meats. Campylobacter spp. was detected at a rate of 61.0% (94/154) in domestic chickens and 28.1% (27/96) in imported ones. While C. jejuni was the major species of the isolates, the rate of C. coli in imported chickens was higher than that in domestic ones. Most Campylobacter-positive samples were contaminated with less than 3.0 log MPN/100g. Salmonella spp. was detected at a rate of 47.4% (73/154) in domestic chickens and 17.7% (17/96) in imported ones. The major serotype of the isolates from domestic chickens was S. Infantis, while S. Enteritidis was the major serotype from imported ones. Most Salmonella-positive samples were contaminated with less than 2.0 log MPN/100g. The antimicrobial susceptibility, using five drugs for Campylobacter isolates and 12 drugs for Salmonella isolates, showed that 42.4% (114/269) and 100% (90/90) were resistant to one or more drugs, respectively. Among the resistant C. jejuni strains, 35.2% (64/182) of the isolates from domestic chickens and 45.3% (24/53) of the isolates from imported chickens showed multiple resistances to nalidixic acid (NA), norfloxacin (NFLX), ofloxacin (OFLX) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX). In addition, eight C. coli strains obtained from imported chickens exhibited resistance to erythromycin (EM). As for Salmonella, 12.1% (8/66) of S. Infantis and 90.9% (10/11) of S. Enteritidis were resistant to NA.