Four breeding ewes and two lambs showed symptoms including astasia and anorexia prior to death at a farm which 12 Suffolk sheep were bred. At the postmortem examination it was revealed that the liver color had changed to a remarkable yellowish brown and the accumulation of hemosiderin in Kupffer cells was also observed. The concentration of copper in the liver was 328±59 μg/g (wet weight), thus the animals were diagnosed as having died from copper poisoning. Because grazing has been limited since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear plant, breeding ewes were housed and fed with 600 g (Cu content : 45 mg/kg, dry matter) of formula feed and hay (Cu content : 5 mg/kg, dry matter) per day for five months. The serum enzyme (GOT, GGT and LDH) activities in breeding ewes without clinical signs were high indicating all sheep were in a state of chalcosis. Serum enzyme activities decreased gradually during a supplement of ammonium molybdate and sodium sulfate except for ewes which died after parturition. However, serum enzyme activities of non-pregnant sheep tended to be lower than those of pregnant sheep. These results suggest that, in addition to deterioration of liver function caused by excessive copper accumulated after long-term intake of high Cu-content formula feed, the stress load during pregnancy, parturition, and lactation may trigger the onset of copper poisoning in ewes.
Orbifloxacin, is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic developed for use in veterinary medicine that is quickly and widely distributed after administration and is excreted primarily by kidney. In this study the pharmacokinetics of orbifloxacin after a single oral administration of 5.0 mg/kg body weight was evaluated in three dogs with experimentally induced chronic kidney disease (CKD group) compared to three healthy dogs (healthy group). The mean glomerular filtration rates by inulin clearance for the CKD group and the healthy group were 2.32±0.45 ml/min/kg and 4.14±0.66 ml/min/kg respectively. The maximum blood concentration of orbifloxacin was 3.60±0.23 μg/ml in the healthy group one hour after administration, and 3.07±0.31 μg/ml in the CKD group two hours after administration. The average blood concentration of orbifloxacin a 24 hours after administration was 0.45±0.14 μg/ml in the healthy group and 0.41±0.10 μg/ml in the CKD group. In this study the concentration of orbifloxacin were higher in the CKD group, whereas there was no significant difference compared to the healthy group. In conclusion, orbifloxacin showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties with no obvious adverse reactions in the CKD group compared to the healthy group.Therefore, these results suggest that no dosage adjustment of orbifloxacin is needed for CKD dogs.
We report the case of a 13-year-old neutered male Miniature Schnauzer which received a constant rate infusion (CRI) of cyclosporine A (CsA) as an induction therapy for severe inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resistant to immunosuppressive therapy. The dog presented to our hospital with chronic enteritis and was unresponsive to symptomatic therapy. Therefore, we performed endoscopy procedure, which confirmed a diagnosis of lymphocytic plasma cell enteritis. A combination of prednisolone and immunosuppressive agents (CsA and azathioprine) was administered, however, remission was not achieved. Subsequently, the dog was hospitalized and underwent CRI of CsA, which resulted in an immediate improvement in symptoms. The treatment was subsequently switched to oral therapy which maintained the remission state. Dogs with severe IBD resistant to immunosuppressive therapy are known to have a poor prognosis. This case report indicates that CRI of CsA can be effective in such cases.
To clarify the possibility of infection by toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans among humans, a survey of toxigenic C. ulcerans infection among domestic cats was performed in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan in May-July 2012. In results of measurement of serum diphtheria antitoxin titers, diphtheria antitoxin was detected in two of 187 cats (0.651 IU/ml and 0.230 IU/ml). The study demonstrated the existence of diphtheria antitoxin in domestic cats in the prefecture, which suggests the possibility of domestic cats as a possible vector of infection for toxigenic C. ulcerans in humans.