This study was carried out to determine the effects of crowding on weight gain, immune performance and the concentration of salivary stress markers in growing-finishing pigs. Space allowances were 0.37 m2/pig (crowding stress group, n＝14) and 0.87 m2/pig (control group, n＝6) in a fully slatted facility (5.24 m2). Initial weights averaged 52.3 kg, and the pigs were tested for 14 days. The average daily gains were significantly lower in the crowding stress group than in the control group on days 0-7 (P＜0.05) and days 7-14 (P＜0.01). The lymphocyte proliferation indexes in response to Concanavalin A were significantly higher in the crowding stress group than in the control group on day 14. The CD4:CD8 ratio was significantly lower in the crowding stress group than in the control group on day 14. CD8＋ and CD14＋ lymphocytes were significantly higher (P＜0.05) in the crowding stress group than in the control group on day 14. Salivary stress markers (Cortisol, IL-18 and IgA) did not change as a result of crowding stress. These results suggest that crowding stress in growing-finishing pigs can have a negative impact on weight gain and alter immune function.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mobility, calcification, and anti-thrombotic properties of valved conduits for the surgical palliation of pulmonic stenosis in dogs. This study included four healthy dogs and valved conduits with two leaflets on the inner side. The three valved conduit types used in this study were autologous pericardium, denacol-treated bioprosthetic valve, and ePTFE. Postoperative echocardiography demonstrated the smooth movement of the leaflets in all valved conduit types. Histological examination of the specimens obtained six months after implantation did not show any thrombus or marked calcification. The surface of the conduit was covered by neointima, including fibroblasts, and was formed at the anastomosis of the valve. However, the long-term outcome of these implanted valved conduits requires further investigation. Nevertheless, these valved conduits may have potential applications for the surgical palliation of pulmonic stenosis in dogs.
We surveyed incidences and clinical findings of glaucoma according to breed in 2,981 dogs presented to the ophthalmic department at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Azabu University from April 1994 to December 2011. Among the 21 major breeds presented, Shiba Inu dogs displayed the highest rate of glaucoma, at 42.9% (84/196). Of 121 eyes of glaucomatous Shiba Inu dogs, there were 57 eyes with corneal opacity (47.1%), 102 eyes with enlargement of the eyeball (84.3%), 66 eyes with atrophy and cuppings of the retinal optic disc (54.5%) and 50 eyes with lens luxation (41.3%). High intraocular pressure was presented in glaucomatous Shiba Inu dogs with either enlargement of the eyeball, atrophy of the retinal optic disc or lens luxation. Subluxation of the lens accounted for 90% in the glaucomatous eyeballs with lens luxation.
Twenty-seven strains of Acinetobacter lwoffii, fourteen strains of A. baumannii, and five strains of other Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from dogs and cats admitted to Miyamoto Animal Hospital from 2006 to 2013. Of the A. lwoffii, 11.1% was resistant to cefepime, 7.4% was resistant to aminoglycosides, 14.8% was resistant to fluoroquinolones, and 11.1% was resistant to imipenem. Although 7.1% of the A. baumannii was resistant to gentamicin and 21.4% was resistant to fluoroquinolones, no strains resistant to cefepime and imipenem were found. The antimicrobial-resistant Acinetobacter spp. were also isolated in the dogs and cats, and it was considered that the attention was necessary due to the trend of the emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp.
The case was a 7-year-old female dog (Pomeranian) with a severe cough. An X-ray showed a solitary spherical mass (about 5 cm in diameter) near the caudal lobe of the right lung, and contrast-enhanced X-ray computed tomography in the venous phase showed the mass in the right thoracic cavity attached to the diaphragm, revealed that the mass had the same characteristics as liver parenchyma, and detected the vein connecting the mass with the native liver. The findings of imaging studies did not show a diaphragmatic hernia. During surgery, the mass was found to be attached to the caudal vena cava and the diaphragm, but there were no findings of a diaphragmatic hernia, and the connection to the native liver could not be found grossly. Histologically, the mass comprised hepatocytes, portal structures consisting of interlobular bile ducts, interlobular arteries and interlobular veins, and central veins. Based on the gross and histological findings, a diagnosis of intrathoracic ectopic liver was made.
We have validated a sandwich ELISA for measuring canine plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP). The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 2.0～2.5%, and the inter-assay coefficient of variation was 0.4～2.6%. The spike and recovery test showed recovery rates ranging between 98% and 103%. Good linearity was observed in the linearity experiment. Plasma concentrations of NT-proANP were determined in normal dogs (n=23) and dogs with mitral regurgitation (n=30) or filariasis (n=4). Plasma NT-proANP concentrations in dogs with mitral regurgitation (426.9±225.7 pg/ml) and filariasis (753.3±321.7 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in normal dogs (73.9±22.4 pg/ml). The present results suggest that the new ELISA for NT-proANP could be useful for diagnosing canine cardiac disease.
The involvement of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been suggested in granulomatous enteritis caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) in pigs. In this study, the small intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes of 23 finished pigs (6 months old) with gross lesions of enteritis were examined histopathologically. Histological lesions similar to those observed in porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) were characterized mainly by epithelial hyperplasia and a depletion of goblet cells; moreover, granulomatous inflammation in the laminae propria and Peyerʼs patches were observed from the jejuna to the ilea. The PPE-like lesions were marked in the upper regions of the small intestines, while the granulomatous lesions were more prominent in the lower regions. Furthermore, silver-stained bacilli were observed frequently in the epithelial cells of the upper intestinal regions. Granulomatous inflammation was also observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes. PCR testing revealed that LI was present in 21 of the 23 intestinal specimens, as well as in 9 of the lymph nodes. However, PCV2 could not be immunohistochemically detected in any of the specimens. The enteritis appeared to be caused by LI, but the involvement of PCV2 in the granulomatous lesions was not proved.