The risk factor of post-calving mastitis was revealed. The udder, for which the milk resembled an inflammatory effusion at 14 days before calving, tended to be infected by mastitis-causing microbes (P＜0.05) or exhibited a low level of lactoferrin during the non-lactating period. This udder posed a high risk of post-calving mastitis. When antibiotics were inoculated in the microbe-positive udder during the non-lactating period, the milk resembled a starch syrup (low-risk of post-calving mastitis) at 14 days before calving.
This study aimed to examine the hypothermia that accompanies general anesthesia in African pygmy hedgehogs (n=5) and the occurrence of associated detrimental symptoms, as well as the effect of heat retention. For the purpose of comparison, all the hedgehogs were anesthetized under two different regimens: induction via subcutaneous injection of atropine (0.05 mg/kg), diazepam (4 mg/kg), and ketamine (50 mg/kg), followed by maintenance through the inhalation of isoflurane (2%) or induction through the inhalation of a high concentration of isoflurane gas (5%), followed by maintenance through the inhalation of a isoflurane (2%). All the hedgehogs were anesthetized, and anesthesia was maintained for 60 minutes. Without heat retention, all the hedgehogs showed clear signs of hypothermia (minimum: 29.7±0.6℃), regardless of whether they were anesthetized via injection or inhalation. Cyanosis resulting from marked cardiorespiratory depression was observed in almost all the hedgehogs. In contrast, with heat retention, all the hedgehogs experienced only a slight case of hypothermia (minimum: 32.5±0.3℃), regardless of anesthesia by injection or inhalation. The occurrence of cyanosis was greatly reduced. These findings indicate that heat retention is effective and essential in the general anesthesia of African pygmy hedgehogs.
An epidemiological survey was conducted on neoplastic diseases in dogs and cats at 26 hospitals in Japan mainly dedicated to primary medical care. Neoplastic diseases were found in 1,902 of 19,870 dogs (9.6%) and 334 of 6,008 cats (5.6%) during the initial visit. The most common malignant diseases in dogs were mast cell tumors, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma, whereas those in cats were lymphoma, malignant mammary gland tumors, and squamous cell carcinoma．Approximately 50% of the patients with confirmed neoplasms had visited veterinary hospitals with chief complaints suggestive of a neoplastic disease．Malignant tumors tend to be observed more often in large-sized dogs and in dogs and cats of an advanced age.