Eleven corn silage samples and 5 glass silage samples produced in Kanagawa were examined for contamination by 18 types of mycotoxins. As a result, mycotoxins were detected in 15 of the 16 samples. However, the levels of mycotoxins detected were low. The levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and aflatoxins were lower than the established control values, but there was high combined contamination of Trichothecenes and Fumonisins or Trichothecenes, Fumonisins and ZON. Toxic additive effects and synergistic effects have been reported upon ingestion of multiple mycotoxins by domestic animals. Therefore, the influence of combined contamination is of concern. Furthermore, although deterioration and mold were observed macroscopically, there were silage samples with minimal mycotoxin contamination. On the other hand, mycotoxins were detected in many samples that exhibited no macroscopic abnormalities. From these results, the presence of mycotoxins may not be correlated with the macroscopic state of the silage.
A 7-year-old female miniature dachshund was referred with progressive anemia and hematochezia, and was diagnosed with colonic vascular ectasia, which is characterized by vascular malformation within the colon region. We attempted medical treatment with estrogen-progesterone therapy (ethinylestradiol/norethisterone) and octreotide, but these treatments were not effective. After a subtotal colectomy was used as surgical treatment, the number of blood transfusions dramatically decreased and the anemia improved gradually. At 688 days after surgical treatment, the dog maintained a good quality of life. This is the first case of canine colonic vascular ectasia in Japan, and the accumulation of clinical information is necessary to learn the optimal diagnostic and treatment methods for this disease.
Clostridium difficile is responsible for pseudomembranous colitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is often isolated from patients and food-producing animals. Although transmission remains speculative, meat products could be a common source of C. difficile infection in humans and food-producing animals could also serve as a reservoir. To clarify its prevalence in cattle in Japan, we isolated C. difficile using fecal samples from 119 cows and 47 calves. Sixteen isolates were obtained from eight of the 47 calf fecal samples (17%), but specific strains were not isolated from the 119 cow fecal samples. The sixteen strains were sorted into 10 PCR ribotypes. All isolates were somewhat toxin-positive and 69% of isolates had three types of toxin genes (tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA/B ), which were involved in pathogenicity in humans. Therefore, our results demonstrated that toxigenic C. difficile was prevalent in Japan.