Two breeding Japanese black cows died in quick succession on a breeding farm in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, in December 2016. Both cows had pale visible mucous membranes and difficulty walking. A blood test, which had been done ante-mortem on the second cow, showed marked anemia and hypoalbuminemia. The necropsy of this cow revealed a large amount of Mecistocirrus digitatus inside the abomasum. Most of the recovered nematodes were immature adults (fifth stage larvae) and the stomach content had an average egg count of only 3.0 per gram. The necropsy was essential in identifying the M. digitatus infection as the cause of death. Clinical symptoms of the first cow were very similar and thought to be the result of blood loss from an M. digitatus infection.
In retrograde urography, an excessive amount of contrast medium can cause iatrogenic bladder rupture, although evaluation is impossible without a sufficient dose. While the actual dose of contrast medium varies significantly based on individual factors, the standard dose is only defined based on body weight. We developed a method of retrograde computed tomography (CT) urography that can evaluate the entire lower urinary tract, from bladder to urethra, with a dose of contrast medium based on intravesical pressure, significantly decreasing the risk of bladder rupture. In the present study, we examined this method using healthy dogs. The results suggested that cystourethrography was appropriately performed with the administration of a contrast medium at an intravesical pressure of 15 mmHg in males and 20 mmHg in females.