We analyzed the within-farm transmission dynamics of bovine coronavirus disease (BCoVD) using a mathematical model and evaluated the vaccination coverage (VC) and outbreak prevention effect of isolation of symptomatic cattle. The estimated basic reproduction number (R0) were 8.00 (3.15‐16.0) and VC values were 0.875 (0.682‐0.937). The stochastic simulation predicted that isolating all symptomatic cattle, including mild symptomatic cattle, within 12 hours of onset prevents BCoVD outbreaks. In contrast, the stochastic simulation predicted that when mild symptomatic cattle were not isolated, BCoVD outbreaks could not be successfully controlled.
We investigated the relationships between the occurrence of rib fractures in live neonatal calves and calving factors. The study included 101 calves (68 natural and 33 assisted deliveries) born at 13 dairy farms in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Rib fractures were detected by palpation of the thorax and confirmed by chest computed tomography (CT) when possible. The details of delivery events were obtained by taking their history. Overall, the incidence of rib fracture was 6.9% (7/101). The incidence was significantly higher with assisted delivery compared to natural delivery (18.2% vs. 1.5%) (P＜0.01). Calves with rib fractures had abnormal clinical signs more often after birth (P＜0.01). On CT, fractures of 8.9 ± 4.4 ribs/calf were confirmed and frequently seen in the 4th to 7th ribs on both the right and the left sides. From these findings, we concluded that unsuitable traction during dystocia was the cause of the rib fractures. Education of farm owners is necessary and plays an important role in ensuring correct assistance during calving.
A 7-year-old male Pekingese was referred to the Minami Animal Hospital for difficulty defecating. A rectal examination revealed an annular colorectal mass in the pelvic canal. Computed tomography revealed the mass infiltrating the surrounding tissue, which was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma based on the histopathological findings. Because surgical resection of the mass was considered difficult, we placed a rectal stent to palliate the clinical signs associated with colorectal obstruction. The day after the stent placement, the dyschezia dramatically improved with minimal complications. The dog died suddenly, 40 days after the stent placement (Day 72) from unknown causes. In this case, the use of self-expanding metallic stent for palliation of colorectal obstruction appeared to be effective.
During meat inspection, a 27-month-old Japanese Black heifer was diagnosed with acute pancreatic necrosis by histopathological examination. Seven days before slaughter, the heifer developed anorexia and exhibited tremors in the abdominal skin. Persistent tremors in the abdominal skin were also seen at ante-mortem inspection. Lesions were found in the pancreas and peripancreatic adipose tissue at inspection after slaughter. Macroscopically, the entire pancreas was slightly swollen, and a small amount of fibrin was deposited on the surface. The cut surface of the pancreas had a variegated appearance caused by merging yellow areas and white areas. The adipose tissue of the peripancreatic omentum and mesentery thickened with associated edema, and irregularly- or belt-shaped fat necrosis was observed in the cut surface. In histopathological samples of the pancreas, widely fatty infiltration accompanied by saponification was observed predominantly in pancreatic interstitium, degeneration or necrosis of acinar cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells, chiefly neutrophils and macrophages were observed around pancreatic parenchyma adjacent to fat necrosis of infiltrative adipocytes. These histological findings were consistent with the characteristics of acute pancreatic necrosis. In this case, the cause could not be identified.