The effect of bacterial colonies expanded into the intervillous spaces on the localization of several lymphocyte lineages was immunohistochemically investigated in two types of mucosa: ordinary mucosa of rat ileum, which consists of mucosa without any mucosal lymphatic tissue; and follicle-associated mucosa (FAM), which accompanies the parafollicular area under the muscularis mucosae in the rat ileal Peyer’s patch. The results showed that bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces induced increased populations of CD8+ cells in the epithelium of the intestinal villus in ordinary mucosa (IV) and intestinal villus in FAM (IV-FAM). Bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces were also associated with increased numbers of IgA+ cells, which were mainly localized in the lamina propria of basal portions of IV and IV-FAM, and with expanded localization of IgA+ cells into the villous apex in both IV and IV-FAM. Moreover, IgA+ cells around the intestinal crypts adjacent to IV or IV-FAM were also increased in response to bacterial colonies. In the IV-FAM, but not IV, L-selectin+ cells, which were found to be immunopositive for TCRαβ or CD19, were drastically increased in the lamina propria from the crypt to middle portion of IV-FAM and in the lumen of central lymph vessel of IV-FAM in response to the bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces. These findings revealed that the expansion of bacterial colonies into the intervillous spaces accompanies the change of histological localization of the lymphocyte lineage in both the ordinary mucosa and FAM.
This study evaluated the expression of genes involved in the concentration of Ca2+ in precursor osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1 subjected to stretching stimuli. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (Trpv4) gene expression, the factor that is activated by stretch stimulation and enables inflow of Ca2+ from the extracellular space, was not affected as a result of stretch stimulation; conversely, the expression of sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (Ncx1) gene involved in outflow of intracellular Ca2+ increased, depending on stimulation intensity. Localization of Ca2+ correlated with the positioning of the endoplasmic reticulum, and intracellular Ca2+ decreased in inverse proportion to the intensity of the stretching force. These results suggest that stretch stimulation activates intracellular Ca2+ elimination rather than Ca2+ uptake before osteoblast differentiation.
C57BL/6J-XYPOS (B6J-XYPOS) mice, which have the Y chromosome derived from Mus musculus poschiavinus on a B6J genetic background, form ovotestes or ovaries. Previously, we replaced the genetic background of B6J-XYPOS mice with B6N and found that individuals with testes also appeared in addition to those with ovaries or ovotestes. To investigate the effect of the B6J genetic sequence on the testis differentiation, the genetic background of B6N-XYPOS mice was replaced with B6J again. The recovery of the B6J genetic background significantly decreased the incidence of testes; only ovaries developed. These results indicate that the testicular differentiation process tends to be perturbed especially in the B6J substrain. This shows the importance of substrain differences in mice usually treated as B6 collectively.
In this study, 22 bacterial isolates from swine necropsy specimens, which were biochemically identified as Streptococcus suis and other Streptococcus species, were re-examined using species-specific PCR for authentic S. suis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the verification of the former judge. Identification of S. suis on the basis of biochemical characteristics showed high false-positive (70.6%) and false-negative (60%) rates. The authentic S. suis showed various capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene types, including type 2 that often isolated from human cases. Five of 22 isolates did not even belong to the genus Streptococcus. These results suggested that the misidentification of the causative pathogen in routine veterinary diagnosis could be a substantial obstacle for the control of emerging infectious diseases.
We investigated the effects of tyrosol (Tyr) on anterior chamber paracentesis (ACP)–induced anterior uveitis in beagle dogs, as determined by protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the aqueous humor (AH). Tyr at a dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg or 2.2 mg/kg of carprofen as a positive control was administered orally twice daily from 2.5 days before paracentesis. The initial ACP was performed in one eye of individual dogs and 0.5 ml AH was aspirated. The secondary AH was collected 60 min later. Pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of Tyr and carprofen significantly decreased aqueous protein and PGE2 concentrations compared to the control group. Overall, these findings suggested that Tyr was useful for the management of canine anterior uveitis.
In this study, we evaluated antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments and protection against challenge with a nephropathogenic Brazilian (BR-I) strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in chickens submitted to a vaccination regime comprising a priming dose of heterologous live attenuated Massachusetts vaccine followed by a booster dose of an experimental homologous inactivated vaccine two weeks later. This immunization protocol elicited significant increases in serum and lachrymal levels of anti-IBV IgG antibodies and upregulated the expression of CMI response genes, such as those encoding CD8β chain and Granzyme homolog A in tracheal and kidney tissues at 3, 7, and 11 days post-infection in the vaccinated chickens. Additionally, vaccinated and challenged chickens showed reduced viral loads and microscopic lesion counts in tracheal and kidney tissues, and their antibody and CMI responses were negatively correlated with viral loads in the trachea and kidney. In conclusion, the combination of live attenuated vaccine containing the Massachusetts strain with a booster dose of an inactivated vaccine, containing a BR-I IBV strain, confers effective protection against infection with nephropathogenic homologous IBV strain because of the induction of consistent memory immune responses mediated by IgG antibodies and TCD8 cells in the mucosal and systemic compartments of chickens submitted to this vaccination regime.
In canine electrocardiography, the reference interval of the ventricular mean electrical axis (MEA) is between +40° and +100°. MEA values in dogs can be influenced by the patient position as well as by the shape of the thorax. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MEA in healthy Doberman Pinschers, hypothesizing that some present a left shift of the MEA. In this retrospective study, 41 healthy, client-owned Doberman Pinschers were included. Echocardiography and standard six-lead ECG examination were performed in all dogs. The MEA was calculated using the isoelectric method. The morphology of the QRS complex and the Q/R ratio in lead II were also evaluated. The median MEA was +45° and ranged from −45° to +90°. MEA was deviated in 16/41 dogs (39%), all presenting a left axis deviation (range, −45° to + 30°). Age was significantly associated with the MEA (P=0.008), showing a negative linear correlation. A deep Q wave in lead II was present in 26/41 (63%) dogs. The Q/R ratio was higher in dogs presenting left shift of the MEA (0.66; range, 0.28–1.35) in comparison to dogs with a MEA within reference range (0.44; range, 0.04–0.73; P<0.001). In conclusion, a significant number of healthy Doberman Pinschers present a left shift of the MEA compare to the reference range, and dogs with MEA deviation show a higher Q/R ratio in lead II. This data should be considered when electrocardiographic evaluation is performed in Doberman Pinschers.
We investigated the clinical characteristics of healthy cats in accordance with the target organ damage (TOD) risk category, on the basis of systolic blood pressure (SBP). This prospective multi-center study included 137 healthy cats. Indirect blood pressure was measured using an oscillometric technique. The median SBP in all cats was 147 mmHg (interquartile range: 134–158). On the basis of the TOD risk category, 57.7, 19.7, 21.9, and 0.7% of the cats were classified into categories I–IV, respectively. Age, sex, and body weight did not affect the SBP. This study provides basic information on the distribution of TOD risk categories in clinically healthy cats.
Since few studies have been published investigating plasma amino acid abnormalities in calves with illnesses, the aim of this study was to examine plasma amino acid abnormalities in calves with diarrhea. Forty-three Holstein calves aged 10.9 ± 5.6 days old were used for this study. Thirty-one of the 43 calves exhibited clinical signs of diarrhea without severe acidemia. The other 12 healthy calves were used as the control. Concentrations of plasma essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, glucogenic amino acids, and ketogenic amino acids in diarrheic calves with hypoaminoacidemia were significantly lower than those in healthy calves. No significant differences were observed between diarrheic calves with normoaminoacidemia and healthy calves when looking at these parameters.
This study aimed to assess the usefulness of serum iron (Fe) concentration as a marker of inflammation caused by the dehorning operation. Five young Holstein cows aged 205.0 ± 10.7 days and weighing 207.2 ± 24.1 kg underwent the dehorning operation. Blood samples were withdrawn before dehorning (pre) and at time periods of t=0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hr. The serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration was significantly high at t=48 hr (P<0.01). The serum Fe concentration significantly decreased, reaching 90.0 ± 36.4 µg/dl at t=24 hr (P<0.001). Therefore, serum Fe concentration showed significant and negative correlation with SAA concentration (r2=0.500, P<0.01). In conclusion, serum Fe concentration is a useful marker of inflammation in young cows that have undergone the dehorning operation.
The basement membrane surrounding cardiomyocytes is mainly composed of α1 and α2 chain of type IV collagen. Arresten and canstatin are fragments of non-collagenous C-terminal domain of α1 and α2 chain, respectively. We previously reported that the expression of canstatin was decreased in infarcted area 2 weeks after myocardial infarction in rats. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism for expression of arresten and canstatin. Myocardial infarction model rats were produced by ligating left anterior descending artery. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine the protein expression and distribution. Arresten and canstatin were highly expressed in the heart. One day and three days after myocardial infarction, the expression of arresten and canstatin in infarcted area was lower than that in non-infarcted area. The expression of cathepsin S, which is known to degrade arresten and canstatin, was increased in the infarcted area. A knockdown of cathepsin S gene using small interference RNA suppressed the decline of arresten and canstatin in the infarcted area 3 days after myocardial infarction. This study for the first time revealed that arresten and canstatin are immediately degraded by cathepsin S in the infarcted area after myocardial infarction. These findings present a novel fundamental insight into the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction through the turnover of basement membrane-derived endogenous factors.
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with BVD virus (BVDV) and can result in economic losses within the livestock industry. In Japan, the test and culling policy is a basic control measure, and implementation of an adequate vaccination program is recommended as a national policy. In addition, optional control measures, including compulsory testing of introduced animals and bulk tank milk (BTM) testing as a mass screening method, are used in several provinces, but their efficacy has not been completely assessed. We evaluated these control measures using the scenario tree model of BVD in Japan, developed in the previous study. The model outputs indicated that compulsory testing of all introduced cattle, rather than only heifers and/or non-vaccinated cattle, was cost effective and reduced the risk of BVDV introduction due to animal movement and that BTM testing could effectively monitor most part of the cattle population. Vaccination coverage and BVDV prevalence among introduced cattle could also affect the cost effectiveness of compulsory testing of targeted cattle, particularly under low vaccination coverage or high BVDV prevalence. However, even with the implementation of a highly effective monitoring scheme for many years, BVD risk could not be eliminated; it instead converged at a very low level (0.02%). Disease models with a cost-effective output could be a powerful tool in developing a control scheme for chronic animal diseases, including BVD, with the consent of relevant stakeholders.
Game meat potentially harbors a number of parasitic and bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne disease. It is thus important to monitor the prevalence of such pathogens in game meats before retail and consumption to ensure consumer safety. In particular, Sarcocystis spp. and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been reported to be causative agents of food poisoning associated with deer meat consumption. To examine the prevalence of these microbiological agents on-site at a slaughterhouse, the rapid, simple and sensitive detection method known as the “DNA strip” has been developed, a novel tool combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification and a lateral flow strip. This assay has achieved higher sensitivity and faster than conventional PCR and is suitable for on-site inspection.
Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the most common orthopedic disorders in dogs and a genetic factor is considered to play an important role in the development of PL. Genomic analysis has attempted to identify the genetic markers associated with the development of PL but only suggestive markers have been identified. Carefully selecting breeds with higher incidence rates of congenital PL as well as affected dogs with more severe symptoms are required, but such information remains limited to date. This study aimed to assess the genetic contribution to the development of PL in puppies. Using data on PL from 2,048 puppies of the nine common breeds in Japan, the association of PL grades between the limbs, breed, and sex as well as the concordance of PL between littermates were examined. A significant correlation was found between right and left limbs in PL grades in all the puppies (Spearman rank correlation coefficient (rs)=0.91, P<0.001) and for each breed (rs=0.81–0.93, P<0.001). In total, 20.3% of the puppies were affected. The inter-breed difference in PL prevalence was 2.1–38.1%, and Toy Poodles showed the highest prevalence rates. Littermates of the affected puppies with PL grade ≥2 had a 16.2-fold higher risk (P<0.001). Thus, these results suggest that PL in puppies is primarily influenced by genetics, especially in Toy Poodles. These data highlight the necessity of using a breeding scheme to decrease the prevalence of PL.
Medetomidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, was reported to decrease tear flow in some species. However, there are no reports about the effect of medetomidine on tear flow in pigs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate it. The study was performed in 10 clinically normal female Landrace pigs aged 3 months. Tear flow was measured by the Schirmer tear test (STT) I before (baseline) and 15 and 30 min after intramuscular administration of 80 µg/kg medetomidine. Compared to the STT I value at baseline, the value decreased significantly at 30 min after administration in both the left and right eyes. In pigs treated with medetomidine, an artificial tear solution or ophthalmic gel should be applied to protect the ocular surface.
This study focused on 8 Thoroughbred racehorses showing bone marrow oedema-type signal in the proximal sagittal groove of the proximal phalanx, with the aim of understanding its clinical significance. Standing magnetic resonance imaging played an important role in assessing osseous abnormalities that were not radiographically identifiable. Further, a histopathological result from one of the cases showed there was oedema surrounding adipose tissues with increase in density of trabecular scaffolding. This may indicate presence of osseous injury within the area of decreased elasticity due to subchondral bone modeling. This study suggests that detection of osseous abnormality based on bone marrow oedema-type signal, and application of appropriate care following injury would contribute to prevent deterioration of stress-related fractures of the proximal phalanx.
Feline embryo development was examined for 7 days after fertilization using commercially available human media supplemented with 0.3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cumulus-oocyte complexes were categorized as Grades 1, 2, and 3 according to morphology. Only-One Medium (OM) was used for in vitro culture (IVC) in OM + BSA, OM + FBS, and OM + BSA/FBS, with BSA supplementation for the first 2 days and FBS for the subsequent 5 days. Embryos cultured in Early Culture Medium (1–2 days) and Blastocyst Medium (3–7 days) were defined as EB + BSA and EB + BSA/FBS. The developmental rate until the blastocyst stage of Grade 1 and 2 oocytes cultured in OM + BSA/FBS was higher than for the other groups and was significantly higher than for the OM + BSA and EB + BSA groups (P<0.01). Grade 3 oocytes cultured in OM + BSA/FBS also showed the greatest proportion of blastocyst formation. However, FBS supplementation throughout the IVC period reduced blastocyst number. The percentage of 2 pronuclei after fertilization as well as blastocyst cell number were significantly higher in Grade 1 and 2 than Grade 3 oocytes when cultured in OM + BSA/FBS (P<0.05). These results indicate that commercially available OM supplemented with BSA for the first 2 days of culture and FBS for the subsequent 5 days is suitable for feline embryo development until the blastocyst stage.
The aim of this study is to identify the combined effect of multiple chemicals to the development of allergy. In this study, the effect of prenatal exposure to an organochlorine agent methoxychlor (MXC) and/or an organophosphate agent parathion (PARA) on trimellitic anhydride-induced allergic airway inflammation was examined in mice. Eosinophil infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly enhanced by MXC + PARA exposure compared to that of the control, MXC, and PARA groups. In the hilar lymph node, only slight increases in B-cell infiltration, as well as IL-6 and IL-9 secretions were observed in MXC + PARA group, and no effect was observed in the individual treatment groups. Our findings imply that prenatal exposure to some combinations of multiple chemicals may exacerbate the allergic inflammatory responses including eosinophils and cytokine production.
Knowledge on genetic polymorphisms of metabolising enzymes including cytochrome P450 (CYP) is very limited in cats. We investigated polymorphisms in CYP3A131, one of the major CYP isoforms in the feline liver and small intestine. Eight non-synonymous variants and one synonymous variant of feline CYP3A131 were identified in 29 cats. A major non-synonymous type was not observed. Metabolic parameters (Km and Vmax) of dibenzylfluorescein hydroxylation were ranged within about 2 times for the identified non-synonymous variants by using a heterologous coexpression system of CYP3A131 and feline cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli. The results confirmed the polymorphic nature of CYP3A131 as a basis for effective application of medicines and prevention of adverse reactions in the treatment of domestic cats.
Genotyping of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was performed on trachea and kidney samples of six chickens obtained from a single farm in Japan. Using two primer sets targeting the spike (S) protein gene, the S1 and S2 regions of DNA fragments were amplified. Sequences of amplified S1 fragments extracted from both organs were identical among the six chickens, showing a JP-I genotype. Sequences of amplified S2 fragments differed between trachea and kidney samples. The kidney profile showed a group IV genotype, whereas the trachea profile showed an unclassified group. This result showed that two different IBVs infected the six chickens. The first IBV infection induced poor protective immunity in this farm, permitting a second IBV infection to occur.
Synthesium elongatum (Brachycladiidae) is an intestinal digenean described from the finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) in Japan. Few records of this species exist and there is a remarkable morphological similarity between S. elongatum and S. tursionis, such that a synonymy between the species has been suggested previously. However, no morphological and/or molecular analysis has been carried out to clarify the taxonomic status of S. elongatum. In this study, we collected specimens of Synthesium sp. from N. asiaeorientalis in western Japan. The specimens possess lobed testes within the third quarter of the body, a round ovary, and vitellaria extending to level of uterine field, which are diagnostic characters for both S. elongatum and S. tursionis. They were morphologically identified to S. elongatum or S. tursionis due to the fact that the available morphometric data for both species overlap remarkably. A molecular analysis of the mitochondrial ND3 gene showed that the pairwise nucleotide distances between these specimens and S. tursionis were small, and phylogenetic analysis showed that these specimens and S. tursionis are in the same clade. Therefore, it was indicated that S. elongatum and S. tursionis are the same species and, consequently, S. elongatum is a synonym of S. tursionis.
We report a successful surgical sterilization procedure for population control of 324 male and female free-ranging grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Genoa (Italy). We describe the clinical procedure from the trapping of the animals to their surgical sterilization and release in another part of the city. Live-trapped squirrels were transported to the veterinary clinic within 1–2 hr of capture and maintained in a hospitalization room reserved for them. The waiting period before surgery was kept below 12 hr. The developed procedure has resulted in a survival of 94% of trapped squirrels from surgery to animal release. Sterilized squirrels started to feed in a very short time (1.0–1.5 hr), and after 2–3 days, it was possible to release them in a new area. Amoxicillin was used as a long-acting postoperative antibiotic to reduce the period of captivity. The successful surgical procedure described here can provide an important additional tool for the management of introduced populations of squirrels. We showed that the surgical sterilization of some hundred squirrels is clinically possible and could be included in management strategies aimed at removing critical populations of these species. Moreover, the data allow dosages and operational times in order to provide economic viability assessment of future population control measures.
Four-toed hedgehogs presented bloody stool and loss of appetite. Integumental masses were observed in two of the four cases. Intraabdominal masses were observed on radiographs and ultrasonography in the remaining two cases. The masses were surgically removed from all four cases. All samples were histologically and immunohistochemically consistent with histiocytic sarcoma (HS). At the time of surgery, 3 of 4 cases had grossly recognized metastatic/disseminated lesions. Survival time was 48 days, 64 days, and 113 days, respectively, and the remaining case is currently alive (at Day 207). The present report describes the clinical management and outcome of hedgehogs that were diagnosed with HS.
The bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzyme activity was measured in 51 serum samples from four captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) using a conventional method with wheat germ lectin precipitation and a commercial agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) kit; the isoenzymes were designated as bone-specific ALP (BAP) and ALP isoenzyme 3 (ALP3), respectively. This study examined the suitability of the AGE kit for analyzing blood biochemistry in Asian elephants. The serum ALP3 and BAP activities were strongly positively correlated and met the evaluation criteria for agreement using Bland-Altman analysis. The results indicate that the AGE kit can be used to examine the blood biochemistry in Asian elephants instead of the conventional method.