The internal thoracic veins (ITVs) are small paired vessels located on the ventral surface of the thoracic cavity that drain the ventro-cranial abdominal wall, the ventro-lateral thoracic wall, the diaphragm and part of the mediastinum, conveying blood from these regions into the cranial vena cava. These vessels demonstrate a high level of anatomic plasticity and haemodynamic adaptability in both humans and small animals with blood flow impairment of the main abdominal and thoracic venous trunks. The ITVs may act as a natural bypass between the cranial and caudal venous system and between the portal vein and the cranial vena cava, depending on the level of the obstruction, giving rise to a wide spectrum of collateral pathways: intrathoracic cavo-caval, thoraco-abdominal cavo-caval, abdomino-thoracic cavo-caval, porto-cranial caval and lateral thoracic-azygos ITV collaterals. This paper provides a brief overview of the normal and pathologic anatomy of the ITVs described in dogs with cranial and caudal vena cava obstruction and portal hypertension as shown by CT angiography. Collateral ITV pathways need to be distinguished from other vascular anomalies in dogs, and their identification during routine CT studies could help radiologists to reach a more accurate diagnosis of caval or portal flow disturbance.
Avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), synonymous with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a worldwide viral agent that infects various avian species and responsible for outbreaks of Newcastle disease. In this study, 40 APMV-1 isolates collected from poultry, migratory birds, and resident birds during 2010–2018 in Taiwan were characterized genetically. Our phylogenetic analysis of complete fusion protein gene of the APMV-1 isolates revealed that 39 of the 40 Taiwanese isolates were closely related to APMV-1 of class I genotype 1 or class II genotypes I, VI or VII, and one isolate belonged to a group that can be classified as a novel genotype 2 within class I. The fusion protein gene sequences of a branch (former 1d) nested within class I sub-genotype 1.2 were closely related to those isolated from wild birds in North America. Viruses placed in class II sub-genotype VI.18.104.22.168.1 and sub-genotype VI.22.214.171.124.2 were the dominant pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV-1) circulating in the last decade in Taiwan. All the Newcastle disease outbreak-associated isolates belonged to class II sub-genotype VII.1.1, which was mainly responsible for the present epizootic of Newcastle disease in Taiwan. We conclude that at least five sub/genotypes of APMV-1 circulate in multiple avian host species in Taiwan. One genetically divergent group of APMV-1 should be considered as a novel genotype within class I. Migratory birds may play an important role in intercontinental spread of lentogenic APMV-1 between Eurasia and North America.
Glanders is a contagious and fatal equine disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei. B. mallei is prevalent among horse populations in Asia, the Middle East, and South America. More than four million horses have been registered in Mongolia in 2020. However, the recent prevalence of glanders has not been well investigated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the seropositivity of B. mallei in horse populations in Mongolia using the complement fixation test (CFT) and Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT). We randomly collected blood samples from horses in central and eastern Mongolia between 2018 and 2019. Of 337 horses, 26 (7.7%) and 28 (8.3%) were seropositive using RBT and CFT, respectively. Interestingly, seropositivity in horses resulting from crossbreeding of Mongolian native horses with thoroughbred horses was higher than that in Mongolian native horses. Our observations suggest that equine glanders are still endemic to Mongolia.
We aimed to clarify antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobes from diseased companion animals. Bacterial identification was based on the Japanese 2012 guidelines for the testing of anaerobic bacteria. AST was performed using the broth microdilution method. The anaerobe-containing samples collected from 2014 to 2018 included blood (anaerobe recovery rate, 5.0%), bile (9.4%), joint fluids (0.6%), pleural effusions (42.6%), ascites (64.1%), cerebrospinal fluids (3.0%), and punctures (75.0%). The anaerobes identified included Bacteroides spp. (33.2%), Peptostreptococcus spp. (19.6%), Prevotella spp. (13.6%), Propionibacterium spp. (10.3%), Clostridium spp. (9.3%), and Fusobacterium spp. (7.5%). Bacteroides fragilis group isolates were resistant to penicillin G (100%), ampicillin (100%), cefmetazole (63.6%), ceftizoxime (90.0%), and clindamycin (40.0%). Our observations demonstrated antimicrobial susceptibility in anaerobes isolated from Japanese companion animals.
We previously developed a multiplex PCR assay for the differentiation of serovar 1a, 1b, 2 and 5 strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. In this study, we analyzed the serovar-defining chromosomal region of a serovar 2 swine isolate, which was PCR-positive for both serovars 1a and 2 by the multiplex PCR assay. Genetic analysis of the chromosomal region revealed that, as in serovar 1a strains, the ERH_1440 gene, which is usually truncated or missing in serovar 2 strains, was intact in this strain. This paper first shows an E. rhusiopathiae serovar 2 strain possessing an intact ERH_1440 gene and suggests that care may be needed when determining the serovar of such rare strains by PCR assay.
Interleukin-4 (IL4) and interleukin-13 (IL13) are involved in the initial response of T helper 2 lymphocytes through the activation of the IL4 receptor alpha (IL4RA), which is a common receptor chain for these cytokines. In humans, several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the IL4R and in interleukin coding genes were associated with atopic disorders. However, the association between canine IL4R polymorphisms and atopic disorders has not been investigated yet. This study aimed to determine the associations between four non-synonymous SNPs and canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) in shiba inu and miniature dachshund populations. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were used to genotype four polymorphisms of canine IL4R and IL13 in 34 shiba inu and 19 miniature dachshund patients with CAD, as well as 29 shiba inu and 39 miniature dachshund patients without the condition. Results from miniature dachshunds revealed a potential association between the presence of minor A allele rs24378020 and CAD (odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.85; Poriginal=0.0062). This CAD resistance allele led to an amino acid substitution (Arg688Cys) that could impair IL4 and IL13 signaling. In shiba inu patients, rs24378020 was fixed by homozygosity of the major G allele. No association was found between the remaining three evaluated SNPs and CAD. Nevertheless, the study suggests that the IL4R Cys688 variant reduces the risk of CAD in miniature dachshunds.
Twenty penguins, including the King penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), and African penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed at an aquarium in Hokkaido, Japan, underwent regular health screening via blood test, and five penguins with suspected aspergillosis were extracted. In cases 1 and 2, a thickened membrane and/or fluid level and/or calcification in the air sac were observed on both radiography and computed tomography (CT). These two penguins died after 19 and 43 days, respectively. At the time the radiographic changes were observed, the disease had likely progressed to a point at which it was too late for recovery. Aspergillus fumigatus infection was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis in case 1. In case 3, infiltration in the pulmonary parenchyma was observed on CT, and the infiltration disappeared following oral administration of itraconazole as diagnostic therapy for 8 months. In case 4, defects in the pulmonary parenchyma were observed only on CT. These defects remained unchanged in size for 7 months despite the lack of any treatment, and were not considered clinically significant. However, the blood antigen level in case 5 was increased, both radiography and CT were unremarkable. The combination of a screening blood test and CT examination could be useful clues for an early diagnosis of aspergillosis as well as for initiating treatment.
Oxygen-induced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hyperintensity artifact is inevitable in fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images of anesthetized animals. This experimental study aimed to confirm the occurrence of this artifact on low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) that is safe and does not induce this artifact in canine brain MRI. Six healthy dogs underwent brain FLAIR MR scans under general anesthesia with 21%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 100% FiO2. The signal intensity (SI) ratio was calculated as the SI of CSF spaces divided by that of normalizing regions. The SI ratios of 21% FiO2 images were significantly different from those of 100% FiO2 images, indicating the presence of artifacts on 100% FiO2 images. The SI ratios of 30% FiO2 images were not significantly different from those of 21% FiO2 images for any of CSF spaces. However, they were significantly different from those of 100% FiO2 images in the cerebral sulci, third ventricle, interpeduncular cistern, mesencephalic aqueduct, and subarachnoid space at the level of the first cervical vertebra (P<0.05). All dogs had normal partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) during inhalation of 30% FiO2, while two dogs had low PaO2 during inhalation of 21% FiO2. Our findings support the hypothesis that high FiO2 induces CSF hyperintensity artifact on low-field FLAIR MR images in dogs. FiO2 of 30% is appropriate for obtaining brain FLAIR MR images with fewer artifacts in dogs.
This study aimed to investigate the distribution and epidemiological relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from companion dogs, owners, and residential environments of 72 households. Sampling was performed twice from January to June 2018 and a total of 2,592 specimens were collected. The specimens collected from each household were streaked on CHROM agar S. aureus and the colonies grown on the medium were further identified using a mass spectrometry microbial identification system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Panton-Valentine-Leukocidin (PVL) gene PCR, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (spa) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were conducted to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the MRSA isolates. A total of 65 S. aureus strains (2.5%) were isolated and 49 (1.9%) of 65 strains were MRSA displaying cefoxitin-resistance with mecA carriage. MRSA strains were isolated from dogs (n=6, 9.2%), owners (n=27, 41.5%), and residential environments (n=16, 24.6%), respectively. Overall prevalence of non-duplicated MRSA was 16.7% (12/72 households) at household level. ST72-SCCmec IVc MRSA clones predominantly appeared in MRSA-positive families. Furthermore, PFGE analyses showed that ST72-SCCmec IVc-t324 is shared between dog owners and dogs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the sharing of ST72 MRSA between dogs and their owners.
The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) are cellular proliferation markers, crucial for predicting the clinical course and aggressiveness of tumors. The purpose of this study was to establish an easy and practical AgNOR staining method in the cytology of dogs and cats. Air-dried cytological slides were prepared from dogs (n=14) and cats (n=12). Acetone, formalin, ethanol and methanol were tested as fixatives for AgNOR staining. Subsequently, various methods of Romanowsky-based counterstains were tested before and after AgNOR staining. Clear and strong AgNOR spots were observed with all fixatives, and post-May–Grünwald staining was the best counterstaining method. The established method showed clear AgNOR spots even in the long-term storage samples and Romanowsky-stained ones.
Two dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia complicated with thromboembolism were presented. Both of the dogs were initially treated with immunosuppressive therapy in conjunction with dalteparin and clopidogrel. Although the immunosuppressive therapy was effective, peritoneal effusion due to thromboembolism was observed during the course of the disease in these dogs. After initiation of rivaroxaban treatment, peritoneal effusion decreased immediately in parallel with the normalization of D-dimer, antithrombin (AT), and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT). Hematochezia, cutaneous hemorrhage, and hematuria were observed as adverse events after administration of rivaroxaban in one case. Rivaroxaban was effective for the control of thromboembolism secondary to immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, and D-dimer, AT, and TAT were useful to monitor the status of thromboembolic disease in dogs.
Successful tracheal intubation is the prerequisite for open-chest models. Tracheal intubation in small animal such as the rat is often challenging due to the small size and special anatomy. We investigated whether endotracheal intubation can be performed safely and reliably in rats employing only gesture fixation and a catheter. Rats were randomly classified into three groups: Improved blind intubation (B group) was performed with gestures fixed intubation position. Transillumination intubation (T group) utilized light to locate the larynx. Incision intubation (I group) was intubated after trachea incision. The feasibility, difficulty, complications of the three groups were compared. B group was faster than the other two groups. Completion time of the operation was recorded as follows: B group: 35.00 ± 9.86 sec; T group: 57.12 ± 6.54 sec; I group: 184.33 ± 25.49 sec (P≤0.001). B group has fewer attempts than Group T (P=0.001). The operational success rates of all three groups (B group 14 (93.3%) vs. T group 12 (80.0%) vs. I group 13 (86.7%)) were similar (P>0.05). In terms of operation difficult and operational complications, the differences between the three groups were not significant. The rate of endometrial damage under microscope were no difference, too. The Improved blind endotracheal intubation is a simple method, with a comparable safety profile to that of the transillumination and incision intubaton.
A coronary heart disease leads to increase in obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuro protective activities was found efficient as cardio-protective in coronary heart disease. Our study investigated hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects of protocatechuic acid in the coronary artery disease induced by high fat and fructose diet (HFD) rat models. A diet rich in fat and fructose was fed to male Wistar rats prior to the start of experimental procedures. Serum lipid levels and hepatic triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were examined and analyzed. Both in vitro an in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was determined as well. Histopathological examination was performed and their results were noted. Noteworthy reduction of serum lipid levels and hepatic TG and TC levels was seen in groups treated with simvastatin (SIM; 20 mg/kg) and PCA (50 and 100 mg/kg) in comparison to HFD groups. Pancreatic lipase activity was reduced in the SIM group and the group treated with doses of PCA (50 and 100 mg/kg). A marked increase in gain in body weight per week (P<0.05) was achieved in HFD group. Coronary risk index (CRI) and Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) showed decreased index values after treatments with SIM and PCA (50 and 100 mg/kg), respectively. Our findings confirmed the efficacious cardio-protective and hypolipidaemic activities of protocatechuic acid in coronary artery disease induced in rats with fat and fructose rich diet.
Babesia spp. are globally distributed hemoparasites that cause disease in many mammalian species. The species Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) is prevalent and endemic in many Asian countries but has also been reported in growing numbers in countries outside of Asia. Standard therapies for the treatment of B. gibsoni often fail to result in consistent and successful clearance of the organism. This study evaluated the use of a combination of three antibiotics: metronidazole, clindamycin and doxycycline after atovaquone and azithromycin failed to eliminate the infection on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The aim of this study was to determine whether the triple antibiotic combination was an appropriate alternative or additional treatment for the elimination of B. gibsoni. The medical records of 24 patients treated from December 2012 to July 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis of B. gibsoni was confirmed with a PCR test that was also used to assess treatment response. All patients were initially treated with the standard therapy, atovaquone and azithromycin with a 25% success rate clearing B. gibsoni. Dogs that remained positive on PCR using the standard therapy were then treated with the triple antibiotic protocol achieving an 87% success rate. The inclusion of an alternative and potentially effective protocol for the treatment of B. gibsoni would increase the options for the current therapeutic options, could aid in clearance of the organism and offer a more affordable option for clients.
Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, E-cadherin and p53 reportedly play important roles in the development and/or progression of human gastrointestinal cancer. The present study evaluated the roles of beta-catenin, E-cadherin and p53 in canine gastrointestinal tumors. Endoscopic biopsy or surgically resected samples, a total of 131, including 38 gastric, 13 small intestinal and 80 large intestinal tumors, were obtained from 95 dogs. Those specimens were examined pathologically. Immunohistochemically, nuclear beta-catenin expression was found in 88% (42/48) of polypoid type adenocarcinomas. Most cases of non-polypoid type adenocarcinomas lacked nuclear expression of beta-catenin with the exception of one case (6%, 1/17). Nuclear beta-catenin expression was not observed in signet ring cell carcinomas (0/15), mucinous adenocarcinomas (0/7) and undifferentiated carcinomas (0/4). The findings indicate that nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is closely related to the development of polypoid type adenocarcinomas but not that of non-polypoid type malignant tumors. The immunoreactivity of E-cadherin for tumor cells tended to decline overall in most of cases including benign tumors. Significant immunoreactivity for p53 was not found in 61% of tumors examined (80/131), including malignant tumors (63%, 57/91), while intense p53-immunoreactivity was rarely found in a few cases of malignant tumors (8%, 7/91). We could not conclude clearly significant correlations between histopathological tumor types and immunohistochemical results of E-cadherin or p53. This paper indicates the importance of the nuclear translocation of beta-catenin for the tumorigenesis of canine intestinal polypoid type adenocarcinomas, especially in the colorectum.
In 2016, tropical screech owl (Megascops choliba) (Tso) chicks were suddenly found dead in a Japanese breeding facility. We autopsied a 9-day-old Tso and discovered white spots scattered on the liver surface. Multifocal necrosis was diffused, and macrophages had infiltrated the necrotic hepatic lesions. Hepatocytes contained numerous intranuclear inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemical staining detected Adenovirus antigen only in the liver. Next, PCR and sequencing (LC536616) identified Tso Adenovirus (TsoAd). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and phylogenic analyzes suggested TsoAd is an owl Aviadenovirus. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of infectious disease among captive raptors.
A four-and-a-half-year-old female Scottish Fold cat underwent partial pancreatectomy with en-bloc splenectomy. The resected specimen was a biphasic tumor that was diagnosed histologically and immunohistochemically as pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC), a ductal carcinoma variant according to the WHO classification of tumors in humans. There was a gradual transition between the adenocarcinoma component and the squamous cell carcinoma component. The squamous cell carcinoma component comprised approximately 30–40% of the tumor. A pancreatic tumor infiltrated into the gastrosplenic ligament and spleen with regional lymph node and mesenteric metastases. Pancreatic ASC has not been reported in animals. This is a case report of feline pancreatic ASC with splenic involvement.
Increasing game meat consumption in Japan requires the dissemination of safety information regarding the presence of human pathogens in game animals. Health information regarding the suitability of these animals as a meat source is not widely available. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of game meat and detect potential human pathogens in wild deer (Cervus nippon) and boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan. Fecal samples from 305 wild deer and 248 boars of Yamaguchi, Kagoshima, and Tochigi prefectures collected monthly for 2 years were examined for the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter spp. STEC was isolated from 51 deer consistently throughout the year and from three boars; O-antigen genotype O146, the expression of stx2b, and eaeA absence (n=33) were the major characteristics of our STEC isolates. Other serotypes included the medically important O157, stx2b or stx2c, and eaeA-positive (n=4) and O26, stx1a, and eaeA-positive strains (n=1). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 17 deer and 31 boars. Campylobacter hyointestinalis was the most common species isolated from 17 deer and 25 boars, whereas Campylobacter lanienae and Campylobacter coli were isolated from three and two boars, respectively. Seasonal trends for the isolation of these bacteria were not significant. This study demonstrates that wild game animals carry human pathogens; therefore, detailed knowledge of the safe handling of game meat is needed to prevent foodborne infections.
Here, we investigated the presence of ST398 livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in nasal swabs of 420 slaughtered pigs from 84 farms at three abattoirs in Tohoku, Japan. MRSA were isolated from 13 (3.1%) samples from 9 (10.7%) farms at two abattoirs. All isolates were classified as ST398 and were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. Ten and three isolates were classified as Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) types V and IVa, respectively. All type V isolates possessed czrC. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of zinc chloride against types IVa and V were 1 and 4 mM, respectively. This study shows the presence of ST398 MRSA in pigs in this region. Antimicrobials and zinc compounds in feed and drugs might select SCCmec type V ST398 MRSA.
This study describes the clinical and ultrasonographic features of superficial swellings in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) and evaluates the role of ultrasonography (US) in diagnosing and surgical planning or making treatment decisions for such swellings. One hundred and twenty-three camels of both sexes were included in this study based on the clinical and US evidence of superficial swellings varying in type, stage, content, and site. Clinical and US evaluation of these superficial swellings resulted in diagnoses of abscess (30.08%), hernia (26.83%), cyst (16.26%), tumor (13.01%), hematoma (6.50%), bursitis (3.25%), aneurysm (2.44%), and grade III muscle strain (1.63%). US yielded a higher sensitivity (91–100%) and specificity (97–100%) than clinical examination (75–91%) in differentiating the superficial swellings. The highest specificity value for US in evaluating the swellings was 100% for hernias, cysts, and tumors, while the lowest specificity values were recorded for hematomas (97%), followed by aneurysms (98%). In conclusion, US is a reliable and accurate tool providing rapid differential diagnosis, thus enabling treatment options for different superficial swellings in camels when clinical examinations are inconclusive.
A female Holstein cow presented with lameness in the left hind-limb, having suffered a fracture within the distal phalanx distal to the distal interphalangeal joint. The lesion was visualized as a radiolucent gap on a lateral radiograph and a hypoechoic gap on an ultrasonogram in which the hyperechoic bony line disappeared. Using regular ultrasonographic examinations, the healing of the fracture could be characterized by increased echogenicity inside the gap and the formation of a hyperechoic bony bridge. Ultrasonography can provide earlier evidence compared with that provided by radiography of the healing process of a fractured distal phalanx.
A 17-year-old mongrel dog and 12-year-old Shiba Inu dog presented with ataxia and paresis of the pelvic limbs, respectively. Gas accumulation within the spinal canal adjacent to the herniated disc was suspected in both cases. Since the gas remained accumulated for a prolonged period, hemilaminectomy was performed to decompress the spinal cord. The bulged external lamina of the dura matter was removed and histopathologically examined. Granulomatous inflammation and hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissues was noted, suggesting that the gas was encapsulated and the fibrous nodules made reabsorption difficult. Clinical signs resolved post-surgery. This is the first report describing histopathological features of pneumorrhachis in dogs. The accumulated gas was successfully removed by surgery. Postoperative course remained uneventful in both cases.
In 2017, two Thoroughbred stallions, A and B in Farms A and B, respectively, in Hokkaido in Japan showed clinical signs of equine coital exanthema (ECE). In 2020, stallion C in Farm B showed clinical signs of ECE. Eighteen mares were mated within five days before stallion A developed ECE. Ten mares that mated within 3 days before onset showed clinical signs of ECE on the external genitalia. Equine herpesvirus 3 (EHV-3) was isolated from vaginal swabs from three mares that mated within 2 days before onset. Swabs from 12 mares that mated within 4 days before onset were real-time PCR (rPCR)-positive and nine of those mares had an increased EHV-3 antibody titer. The three stallions were administered valaciclovir orally and topical acyclovir ointment was applied. Treatment started on the next day after onset in stallion A and on the day of onset in stallions B and C. EHV-3 was firstly isolated from penis swabs of stallions A and B before treatment and from penis swabs of stallion C 2 days after treatment. EHV-3 was not isolated after 8, 5 and 8 days from onset in stallions A, B and C, respectively. However, swabs were rPCR-positive for at least 12, 9 and 15 days after onset of stallions A, B and C, respectively. EHV-3 was excreted from the stallions at least within 4 days before the onset of ECE, and acyclovir treatment resulted in the termination of excretion within 8 days after onset.
Microvascular endothelial cells possess versatile functions and their roles in a variety of viral infections have been documented. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection induces severe lung inflammatory lesions in piglets, which is manifested as pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism of PRRSV affecting porcine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMECs) remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of PMECs to PRRSV. Primary PMECs were isolated and purified from piglet lungs, and the expression of three PRRSV receptors was characterized using immunofluorescence. Overt cytopathic effects of the PRRSV strain HN in PMECs were observed at day five post-infection, and PRRSV antigens in PMECs were determined at both RNA and protein levels using immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR assays. The viral antigen significantly increased at 96 hr post-infection, and infectious virus was recovered from the supernatant of the infected PMECs. The results show that PMECs can be infected with the PRRSV strain HN, and that their receptor expression pattern is different from that of alveolar macrophages. The results of this study shed light on the potential roles of PMECs in PRRSV infection and provide a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis underlying its severe manifestation.
Feces obtained from 204 domestic cats with gastrointestinal symptoms were genetically examined for feline astrovirus (FeAstV) and feline parvovirus (FPV), both of which are known feline gastroenteric viruses. FeAstV detection rates were significantly higher in winter (44.4%) than in other seasons, and in cats under a year old (27.8%) than in a year or older ones (12.4%) (P<0.05). In contrast, no significant seasonal and age differences were obtained in FPV detection rates. Upon FeAstV ORF2 sequence analysis, the 23 present isolates were classified into the same clade (Mamastrovirus 2) as the 18 reference strains from other countries. Our findings suggest that FeAstV is already circulating in Japan, and it is more prevalent in juvenile cats in winter, unlike FPV.
Although kinship (parent-offspring or siblings) contact has been suggested as a driving factor for sarcoptic mange epizootic in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), no effect has been reported. In contrast, habitat fragmentation caused by urbanization may result in a high occurrence of sarcoptic mange, because habitat fragmentation may promote contact infection by increasing the population density of raccoon dogs. The habitat distribution of raccoon dogs may therefore influence epizootic sarcoptic mange. The genetic relationship between raccoon dogs was analyzed to examine Sarcoptes scabiei transmission between kin. The relationship between S. scabiei infection and the habitat of raccoon dogs was also investigated. Seventy-five raccoon dogs from Takasaki, Gunma prefecture, were examined from 2012 to 2018; 23 were infested with S. scabiei. The genotypes were determined using 17 microsatellite loci, and the relationships were categorized into four patterns by the ML-Relate software. There was no significant difference between infested pairs and other two pairs (Chi- squared test: χ2=0.034, df=1, P=0.85). Although it was difficult to predicate because the mortality rate was unclear in this study, kinship contact does not seem to be an important factor for sarcoptic mange epizootic. S. scabiei infection rates were significantly associated with the location of village sections (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.11–2.17, P=0.011). It is suggested that direct/indirect contact between individuals living closely together is an important factor for the transmission of S. scabiei.
Sea turtles can detect airborne and waterborne odors, but whether they recognize scents from the same species and if so, how they affect their behavior remains unknown. The present study evaluated the behavioral effects of odorants on juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). The odorants were derived from Rathke glands (external scent glands) of mature male green sea turtles, and from two types of food. The activity of the juveniles increased when exposed to food scents, and significantly decreased compared with controls when exposed to scents from Rathke glands. These findings indicated that scents from the same species affect behavior, and that chemical communication via olfaction has important outcomes for sea turtles.