The degu has drawn increasing attention for use as an experimental animal in stress response studies due to its physiological features, such as diurnality and seasonal breeding, which differ from conventional laboratory rodents. Stress response is elicited by steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal gland, whose functions are controlled by pituitary hormones reaching through the adrenal arteries. However, knowledge of the arterial anatomy of the degu adrenal gland remains insufficient. To address this issue, we observed adrenal arteries in 20 male degus injected with red-colored latex. Adrenal arterial branching patterns were classified into Types 1–4, which respectively have 1 to 4 parent arteries that give rise to the adrenal arteries. Based on the combination of the parent arteries, Types 2 and 3 were categorized into subtypes a to c, while Type 4 was categorized into subtypes a and b. On the left side, Type 2 (45%) and Type 3 (45%) were predominant, whereas Type 1 (5%) and Type 4 (5%) were infrequent. On the right side, Type 2 (50%) and Type 3 (45%) were predominant, whereas Type 4 (5%) was infrequent. Type 1 was not present. There were 0 to 4 cranial, 1 to 4 middle and 1 to 4 caudal adrenal arteries, with the total number varying from 2 to 9. The present observation provides knowledge of comparative anatomical features of the degu adrenal arteries, which can serve as an anatomical basis for comparative endocrinological studies.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the functions of estrogen and two estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ) in the myoregeneration process and morphogenesis. Cardiotoxin (CTX) was injected into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of ovariectomized (OVX) mice to induce muscle injury, and subsequent myoregeneration was morphologically assessed. The diameter of regenerated myotubes in OVX mice was significantly smaller than that in intact mice at all time points of measurement. OVX mice also showed lower muscle recovery rates and slower speeds than did intact mice. ER protein levels showed a predominance of ERβ over ERα in both intact and OVX states. The ERβ level was increased significantly at 7 days after CTX injection in OVX mice and remained at a high level until 14 days. In addition, continuous administration of E2 to OVX mice in which muscle injury was induced resulted in a significantly larger diameter of regenerated myotubes than that in mice that did not receive estrogen. The results indicate that estrogen is an essential factor in the myoregeneration process since estrogen depletion delayed myoregeneration in injured muscles and administration of estrogen under the condition of a low estrogen status rescued delayed myoregeneration. The results strongly suggested that ERβ may be a factor that promotes myoregeneration more than does ERα.
The microbicidal activities of mixtures of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) were evaluated in a suspension test at −20°C using an anti-freeze agent (AFA) containing methanol, or at 1°C, with varying contact time, toward avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), fowl adenovirus (FAdV), avian reovirus (ARV), Salmonella Infantis (SI) and Escherichia coli (EC). At −20°C, the mixtures could inactivate AIV and NDV within 30 min, FAdV and ARV within 5 sec, and SI and EC within 3 min, respectively. AFA did not inactivate viruses and bacteria within 30 min and 10 min, respectively. At 1°C, the mixtures inactivated FAdV and ARV within 30 sec, AIV within 10 min, and NDV within 30 min. A mixture of slaked lime (SL) and QAC could inactivate FAdV and ARV within 30 sec, but could not inactivate AIV and NDV even after 60 min at 1°C. SL could not substitute FdCa(OH)2 in order to exert the synergistic effects with QAC. Thus, QACs microbicidal activities were maintained or enhanced by adding FdCa(OH)2. It is hence recommended to use QACs with FdCa(OH)2, especially in the winter season.
Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis are important human pathogens and also served as sentinel organisms for monitoring systems of antimicrobial resistance in both animals and humans. In this study, 106 E. faecium and 56 E. faecalis isolates were collected from 61 pig farms in 18 proveinces of China. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for 9 clinically important antibiotics and 3 antimicrobial growth promoters. The Enterococcus isolates showed high prevalence of resistance to medically important antibiotics, such as ampicillin (50.9% for E. faecium and 19.6% for E. faecalis), chloramphenicol (24.5% for E. faecium and 41.1% for E. faecalis), erythromycin (83.0% for E. faecium and 91.1% for E. faecalis), tetracycline (79.2% for E. faecium and 100% for E. faecalis), quinupristin/dalfopristin (26.4% for E. faecium) and ciprofloxacin (73.6% for E. faecium and 66.1% for E. faecalis). Resistance to tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin was very rare. The resistance status of three representative in-feed antibiotics bacitracin, nosiheptide and enramycin was firstly investigated with Enterococcus as indicator bacteria. The Enterococcus isolates showed extremely high frequency of bacitracin resistance (96.7% for E. faecium and 87.8% for E. faecalis), while no nosiheptide and enramycin resistance was observed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that a majority of E. faecium and E. faecalis strains showed unrelated profiles, indicating high heterogeneity among the Enterococcus isolates. Our study provided basic data on the antimicrobial resistance of E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates.
Mycoplasma species are often isolated from horses with respiratory symptoms; however, the pathogenicity of Mycoplasma is still unclear. In autumn of 2018, we encountered an increase in cases with respiratory symptoms, mainly coughing, in a group of Thoroughbred racehorses in Japan. We examined tracheal wash samples obtained from 40 of those cases. Bacteria and viruses that commonly cause respiratory symptoms were investigated, and anaerobes were detected in only 5 cases and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) was detected in only 1 case of 40 cases with loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. S. zooepidemicus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated at a bacterial count of higher than 1.0 × 104 CFU/ml from 5 and 2 cases of 28 cases cultured, respectively. None of the viruses investigated was detected in 40 cases. Mycoplasma equirhinis (M. equirhinis) was isolated from 40.0% (16/40) of the cases, which was higher than previously reported isolation rates. The rate of M. equirhinis isolation in the cases from 2018 was significantly higher than the isolation rates in the other horses: clinical cases with respiratory symptoms in 2019–2020 (13.6%, 3/22) and healthy horses (13.5%, 5/37) in Japan. In this study, the isolation rate of M. equirhinis from horse group with cough symptoms in 2018 was high and no other common etiological agents were detected. The pathogenesis of M. equirhinis is still unclear, however, M. equirhinis might have been associated with respiratory symptoms in the Thoroughbred horse cases in 2018.
To simplify the diagnosis of swine edema disease, overnight culture supernatants of swine clinical samples were assayed using immunochromatographic test strips we developed previously. Small-intestinal contents, mesenteric lymph nodes, and fecal samples were cultured in casamino acid-yeast extract broth overnight, after which supernatants were loaded onto immunochromatographic test strips to determine whether they could detect Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e). Among 23 clinical samples in which PCR-identified stx2e-positive E. coli were isolated, samples from seven of ten small-intestinal contents, one of three mesenteric lymph nodes and six of ten fecal samples showed Stx2e-positive reactions in the protein-based immunochromatographic test. Additionally, one small-intestinal content sample, in which stx2e-positive E. coli were not isolated, showed an Stx2e-positive reaction. Furthermore, the immunochromatographic test results of the samples were associated with the toxin concentration determined by sandwich ELISA and cytotoxicity assay results on Vero cells. The toxin concentration range of the samples with positive and negative reactions were 2.1–196.2 ng/ml and 0–12.8 ng/ml, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of this immunochromatographic test strip calculated from all clinical samples analyzed in this study were 60.9% and 94.4%, respectively. Our immunochromatographic test strip has strong potential for simple and accurate diagnosis for edema disease by detecting toxin expression, complementing the PCR method.
The sales amount of antimicrobials intended for use in dairy cattle, beef cattle and broilers from 2008 to 2019 was evaluated for each antimicrobial class and administration route using dosage-based indicators. Our results revealed that the antimicrobial sales amount sold for use in dairy cattle in 2019 in terms of total weight of active ingredient, the number of defined daily doses (DDDs) (theoretical amount of biomass subjected to antimicrobial treatment in a year) and the number of treatment days (TDs) (theoretical number of days of treatment that an animal is subjected to in a year) calculated using Japanese DDD values (DDDjp values) was 36,751 kg, 8,261,848,000 kg·days and 15.5 days, respectively. Likewise, the antimicrobial sales amount sold for use in beef cattle and broilers in 2019 in terms of these metrics was 33,403 kg, 3,928,248,000 kg·days and 3.61 days, and 69,773 kg, 2,947,848,000 kg·days and 10.66 days, respectively. There was a considerable difference between the number of DDDs calculated using DDDjp values and that calculated using European DDD values (DDDvet values) for antimicrobial products sold for use in dairy and beef cattle. Our results also revealed that the sales amount of some antimicrobials, such as cephalosporins and quinolones represented larger proportions when calculated using dosage-based indicators than when calculated using the weight of active ingredient. Considering that Japanese veterinarians and farmers are more likely to conform to the Japanese dosage recommendations rather than the European ones, these results indicate the need for using dosage-based metrics, in particular metrics based on Japanese dosages rather than European dosages.
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the major causes of diarrhea in calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is considered the most important calf diarrhea pathogen in the Cryptosporidium species. Not only could infected calves spread C. parvum, but infected adult cattle could also shed oocysts. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the prevalence of C. parvum in dairy herds in Taiwan, including calves, the dams in delivery enclosure, the floor, and the drinking water; (2) to clarify the relationship of diarrhea, management, and C. parvum infection. Twenty dairy herds in Taiwan were selected by random sampling, including 226 calves and 198 dams, and other environmental samples were collected. A questionnaire was filled out by the farm owners to collect information regarding the management of calves and the delivery enclosure. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for C. parvum infection. The prevalence of C. parvum infection in calves was 26.5% (60/226), while in dams, it was 19.7% (39/198). The C. parvum infection in calves increased with environmental contamination of C. parvum and clinical signs of diarrhea, while it decreased with a yard provided in the delivery enclosure. In conclusion, the management of the delivery enclosure appears to be more important for preventing cryptosporidiosis in calves in Taiwan.
At present, there is no vaccine available against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common zoonotic pathogenic bacterium. In a previous study, the authors prepared a divalent combination DNA vaccine, pOPRL+pOPRF, which exhibited good protective efficacy. To explore the optimal immunization dose of this divalent combination DNA vaccine, in the present study, chickens were vaccinated with 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg doses. The levels of serum antibody, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were determined, and lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed. After challenge with virulent P. aeruginosa, the protective efficacy was evaluated. Following vaccination, the serum antibodies, stimulation index values, and concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-2 were significantly higher in chickens vaccinated with 100 and 200 µg vaccines than in those vaccinated with 25 and 50 µg doses (P<0.05). IFN-γ and IL-2 concentrations in chickens immunized with 100 µg vaccine were slightly higher than those in chickens immunized with 200 µg vaccine, although the difference was not statistically significant. The protective rates were 55%, 65%, 85%, and 85% with 25, 50, 100, and 200 µg of the pOPRL+pOPRF DNA vaccine, respectively. Thus, the immune efficacy of the pOPRL+pOPRF DNA vaccine increased with an increase in immunization dose, but this does not imply that a higher dose necessarily achieves a better outcome. The optimal immunization dose of pOPRL+pOPRF DNA vaccine in chickens was 100 µg.
Intramammary infusion of Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve)-induced somatic cell (SC) counts, chemiluminescent response (CL), lactoferrin (LF) concentrations and mastitis-causing pathogens from quarters with subclinical mastitis were measured to evaluate innate immune response of mammary glands in dairy cows at 3 to 4 weeks before drying off. SC counts in 7 quarters of 7 control cows and 5 quarters of 6 cows with mastitis increased markedly on day 1 and SC values in control cows were significantly (P<0.05) increased and returned to pre-infusion levels on day 5 after B. breve-infusion. CL values in both groups increased markedly on day 1 and then decreased after B. breve-infusion; however, CL values in cows with mastitis did not return to normal levels on day 5 and at postpartum. The CL values were highly correlated with their SC counts in milk from both groups. LF concentrations increased toward day 3 after B. breve-infusion and were higher in cows with mastitis. B. breve-infusion eliminated 16.6% (1/6) of pathogens from 6 quarters with chronic subclinical mastitis. B. breve-induced SC responses in quarters from 3 cows with mastitis showed characteristic patterns of recovery, persistent and new infections. B. breve-induced SC counts in quarters from the cows in the pre-drying off were lower (25.7–70.6%) than those of the cows in mid-lactation. The intrinsic innate immune response in cows on pre-drying off may be decreased and appears to be insufficient to eliminate pathogens from mammary gland in the pre-drying off.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common comorbidity in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), and can induce various changes in the right heart, such as right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, dilatation, and dysfunction. We hypothesized that RV function, not only systolic function but also diastolic function, could be worsened with PH progression. We aimed to compare RV systolic and diastolic function in dogs with MMVD. Twenty healthy dogs and sixty-eight dogs with MMVD were enrolled. Dogs with MMVD were classified into the probability of PH. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic indices for right heart and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography indices were measured. The morphological indicators of the right heart were significantly higher only in the high probability of PH group. The RV strain, early-diastolic and systolic strain rates were significantly lower in the high probability of PH group than those in the low and intermediate probability of PH groups. Multivariate analysis showed that increased RV internal dimension normalized by body weight and RV myocardial performance index were significantly associated with the presence of right-sided congestive heart failure. Speckle tracking echocardiography-derived RV systolic and diastolic function were activated in the low and intermediate probability of PH groups. However, dogs with high probability of PH showed RV myocardial dysfunction and dilatation. Increased RV myocardial performance index and end-diastolic RV internal dimension normalized by body weight were significantly associated with the presence of right-sided congestive heart failure in dogs with MMVD.
Peripheral B-lymphocyte clonality of 274 bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle with lymphocytosis was analyzed using clonality PCR based on sequences of the variable region of the bovine immunoglobulin H chain. None of the cattle showed monoclonal proliferation, while 10, 31, and 233 showed minor-clonal, oligoclonal, and polyclonal proliferation, respectively. A total of 163 cattle were analyzable the following year, and lymphocytosis was maintained in 157, indicating persistent lymphocytosis (PL). B-lymphocyte clonality of the 157 PL cattle was minor-clonal in 6 (3.8%), oligoclonal in 8 (5.1%), and polyclonal in 143 (91.1%). A higher rate of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) onset within a year was observed in PL cattle with minor-clonal (50.0% (3/6)) and oligoclonal (25.0% (2/8)) proliferation compared to those with polyclonal (5.6% (8/143)) proliferation. Minor-clonal and oligoclonal proliferation in PL cattle may be a prognosis factor for developing EBL.
Hypertrophic scars found on the human body rarely develop in experimental animals, possibly due to their looser skin structure. This makes it difficult to understand the genesis of scar lesions. Therefore, appropriate animal models are urgently needed. In this study, we established a novel experimental model of a scar-forming wound by resecting a small portion of the abdominal muscle wall on the lower center of the abdomen in C57BL/6N mice, which are exposed to contractive forces by the surrounding muscle tissue. As a low-tension control, a back skin excision model was used with a splint fixed onto the excised skin edge, and granulation tissue formed on the muscle fascia supported by the back skeleton. One week after the resection, initial healing reactions, such as fibroblast proliferation, occurred in both models. However, after 21 days, lesions with collagen-rich granulation tissues, which were also accompanied by multiple nodular/spherical-like structures, developed only in the abdominal wall model. These lesions were analogous to scar lesions in humans. Therefore, the animal model developed in this study is unique in that fibrous scar tissues form under physiological conditions without using any artificial factors and is valuable for studying the pathogenesis and preclinical treatment of scar lesions.
A male Holstein-Friesian calf was born with multiple, cauliflower-like, pale pink cutaneous masses on the head and limbs. On histopathological examination, the cutaneous masses were diagnosed as congenital cutaneous fibropapillomatosis. Those lesions involved focal proliferation of sebaceous gland in the dermis. There were no histological findings to suggest bovine papillomavirus infection, such as the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies, large keratohyalin granules, and koilocytosis. Furthermore, papillomaviral antigens and DNA were not detected by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. These results suggested that there was no association between these cutaneous lesions and bovine papillomavirus infection, and the lesions were considered as harmartomatous changes.
A 12-day-old male calf that did not want breast milk from birth died following neurological signs such as staggering. Postmortem examination revealed bleeding and encephalomalacia in the left striatum and frontal lobe. Histopathologically, necrotic granulomatous encephalitis with numerous fungi was detected. The fungi were positively stained with anti-Rhizomucor mouse monoclonal antibodies. Lichtheimia ramosa was detected in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of the affected tissue by molecular methods. To the best of our knowledge, striatal necrosis caused by L. ramosa in a neonatal calf has not been reported. This study provides the first evidence of striatal necrosis caused by L. ramosa in a neonatal calf.
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the most leading concerns for public health globally. Diazepam, a local anesthetic, has been reported for its cardioprotective potential. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the possible mechanism of action of diazepam against left anterior descending ligation-induced myocardial IRI in experimental rats. IRI was induced in healthy male rats by ligating coronary artery for 30 min and then reperfused for 60 min. The animals were pre-treated with either vehicle or diltiazem (10 mg/kg) or diazepam (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg) for 14 days. Compared to the IRI group, diazepam (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) markedly (P<0.05) attenuated IRI-induced alterations in cardiac function and oxido-nitrosative stress. In addition, diazepam prominently (P<0.05) improved cardiac Na+K+ATPase, Ca2+ATPase levels and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) mRNA expression. It also significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated cardiac mRNA expressions of cardiac troponin I (cTn-I), C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukins (IL)-1β, and IL-6. In western blot analysis, IRI-induced myocardial apoptosis was reduced by diazepam treatment reflected by a marked (P<0.05) decreased in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Caspase-3 protein expression. Diazepam also efficiently (P<0.05) improved IRI-induced histological aberration in cardiac tissue. In conclusion, diazepam exerts cardioprotective effect by inhibiting inflammatory release (CCR2, TNF-α, and ILs), oxido-nitrosative stress, and apoptosis (Bax and Caspase-3) pathway during myocardial IRI in experimental rats.
Hyperkalemia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders. By injecting various concentrations of potassium chloride (KCl) solutions intravenously into bullfrogs, we demonstrated characteristic electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities of hyperkalemia in frog hearts. The widened QRS complexes induced by 100 mM KCl injection were accompanied by an increase in the resting membrane potential in cardiomyocytes and a decreased slope of phase 0 in the action potential. Recording both ECG waveforms and the cardiac action potential enabled us to reveal the mechanisms of hyperkalemia-induced ECG abnormalities. Additionally, pre-treatment with insulin, a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase activity, significantly accelerated the recovery from the widened QRS complexes in the ECG, demonstrating a pronounced shift of extracellular potassium ions into the intracellular space.
Bacterial cystitis is one of the feline lower urinary tract diseases (FLUTDs). Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (ARA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are oxidized into various lipid mediators that modulate inflammation. Since the profile of lipid metabolites excreted in urine is useful for assessing inflammatory body conditions, we analyzed 126 types of urinary lipid metabolites in cats with bacterial cystitis. Using LC-MS/MS, we found that the levels of 11 metabolites were higher in the urine of cystitis cats than in the urine of healthy cats. In detail, the urinary levels of ARA, EPA, and DHA and eight of their metabolites were increased in cystitis cats. Focusing on the lipid oxidation pathway, the urinary levels of four cyclooxygenase-, three lipoxygenase-, and one cytochrome P450-dependent oxidated metabolites were increased in bacterial cystitis. These urinary lipid profiles can provide some insight into the pathology and future diagnosis of bacterial cystitis.
A multiplex PCR method for rapid and sensitive diagnosis, differentiating three pathogenic Yersinia groups such as the highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, including serotype O8, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis, was developed. Four primer pairs were chosen to detect the genes fyuA, ail, inv, and virF, responsible for the virulence in pathogenic Yersinia species. Under the multiplex PCR conditions, the unique band patterns for the highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis were generated from Yersinia strains. The detection limit of this method was 101–103 CFU per reaction tube. This multiplex PCR method could detect highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica O8 from the wild rodent fecal samples that were culture-positive. Therefore, the new multiplex PCR method developed in this study is a useful tool for rapid and sensitive diagnosis, distinguishing three pathogenic Yersinia groups.
The prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) strains in wild deer and boar in Japan was investigated. STEC O157 strains were isolated from 1.9% (9/474) of the wild deer and 0.7% (3/426) of the wild boar examined. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis classified the wild deer and boar strains into five and three PFGE patterns, respectively. The PFGE pattern of one wild boar strain was similar to that of a cattle strain that had been isolated from a farm in the same area the wild boar was caught, suggesting that a STEC O157 strain may have been transmitted between wild boar and cattle. Clade analysis indicated that, although most of the strains were classified in clade 12, two strains were classified in clade 7. Whole-genome sequence (WGS) analysis indicated that all the strains carried mdfA, a drug resistance gene for macrolide antibiotics, and also pathogenicity-related genes similar to those in the Sakai strain. In conclusion, our study emphasized the importance of food hygiene in processing meat from Japanese wild animals for human consumption.
We aimed to determine whether dexmedetomidine administration with or without atropine increases cardiac troponin I (cTnI) level in healthy dogs. We hypothesized that 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine + atropine increases the cTnI level, whereas 5 µg/kg dexmedetomidine + atropine does not. Eighteen healthy, pet dogs that underwent an orthopedic surgery or ovariohysterectomy were included in this study. The dogs were randomly assigned to atropine (0.02 mg/kg)–dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg), saline–dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg), and atropine (0.02 mg/kg)–dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg) groups. Each dog was premedicated with atropine or saline intramuscularly (IM). After 10 min, they were IM injected with dexmedetomidine (10 or 5 µg/kg)–morphine (0.5 mg/kg)–midazolam (0.2 mg/kg). Following this, anesthesia was induced after 10 min with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen. The median plasma cTnI level at 6, 12 and 24 hr after premedication was significantly higher than that at baseline. The cTnI level in the atropine–dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg) group was significantly higher than that in the saline–dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg) and atropine–dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg) groups at 6 and 12 hr after premedication. The cTnI level returned to normal within 72 hr after premedication in all groups. The administration of atropine in combination with 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine increased the cTnI level, indicating subclinical myocardial damage.
General anesthesia reduces hepatic blood flow (HBF) from circulatory depression. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is associated with decreased circulatory depression compared to inhalation anesthesia, and epidural anesthesia using local anesthetics increases blood flow by blocking the sympathetic nerves and expanding blood vessels. We investigated the effects of thoracolumbar epidural anesthesia with TIVA on HBF in dogs. Six Beagle dogs had epidural catheters placed between T13 and L1 and were anesthetized with propofol and vecuronium. Physiological saline (control) or 2% lidocaine (0.2 ml/kg, followed by 0.2 ml/kg/hr) was administered at 1–2 weeks intervals. Heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) were recorded at 10-min intervals from before epidural injections (T0) to 110 min. Indocyanine green test was used to measure HBF during the awake state and until 90 min after epidural injections. HR and CI did not differ between treatments. MAP and SVRI after lidocaine were significantly lower than those of controls, and the lowest MAP value was 65 ± 11 mmHg at T10. Compared to T0, after lidocaine treatment, HBF was significantly higher at T30, T60 and T90 (P<0.05); while, after control treatment, no significant change was evident at any time point. Despite a decrease in MAP by this technique, HBF was either maintained at pre-anesthetic levels or increased in comparison to controls, probably due to vasodilation of the hepatic artery induced by the selective blockade sympathetic ganglia.
This study examined the analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intravenous (IV) tramadol during general intravenous anesthesia in calves. Calves were premedicated with diazepam (0.2 mg/kg, IV) with tramadol (2 mg/kg, IV) (group T) or saline (group S). Anesthesia was induced by thiamylal sodium (4 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with an infusion (2 ml/kg/hr) of 5% guaifenesin containing thiamylal sodium (2 mg/ml). Additional thiamylal sodium (1–2 mg/kg, IV) was administered when interference from the calves was observed during surgery. The total counts of additional thiamylal sodium administration, analgesia score using a visual analog scale, recovery time, and cardiopulmonary function in the different groups were assessed and compared. Group T showed significantly fewer counts of additional drug administration and a significantly higher analgesia score. Tramadol may provide adequate analgesia with minimal cardiopulmonary changes in calves during general anesthesia.
Cancer immunotherapy is a novel cancer treatment for canine tumors. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is overexpressed in some human tumors and inhibits antitumor immunity. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated expression pattern of IDO1 and the nature of IDO1-expressing cells in canine normal and tumor tissues. In normal tissue samples, IDO1 expression was detected only in the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsil tissues, and colon tissues. In contrast, IDO1-positive tumor cells were observed in several tumor tissue types. This is the first study to evaluate IDO1 expression in canine normal and tumor tissues, and the results suggest that IDO1 is a promising target for novel cancer immunotherapy in dogs with tumors.
Large highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks caused by clade 18.104.22.168e H5N6 viruses occurred in Japan during the 2016–2017 winter. To date, several reports regarding these outbreaks have been published, however a comprehensive study including geographical and time course validations has not been performed. Herein, 58 Japanese HPAI virus (HPAIV) isolates from the 2016–2017 season were added for phylogenetic analyses and the antigenic relationships among the causal viruses were elucidated. The locations where HPAIVs were found in the early phase of the outbreaks were clustered into three regions. Genotypes C1, C5, and C6–8 HPAIVs were found in specific areas. Two strains had phylogenetically distinct hemagglutinin (HA) and non-structural (NS) genes from other previously identified strains, respectively. The estimated latest divergence date between the viral genotypes suggests that genetic reassortment occurred in bird populations before their winter migration to Japan. Antigenic differences in 2016–2017 HPAIVs were not observed, suggesting that antibody pressure in the birds did not contribute to the selection of HPAIV genotypes. In the late phase, the majority of HPAI cases in wild birds occurred south of the lake freezing line. At the end of the outbreak, HPAI re-occurred in East coast region, which may be due to the spring migration route of Anas bird species. These trends were similar to those observed in the 2010–2011 outbreaks, suggesting there is a typical pattern of seeding and dissemination of HPAIV in Japan.
Low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs and HPAIVs, respectively) have been co-circulating in poultry populations in Asian, Middle Eastern, and African countries. In our avian-flu surveillance in Vietnamese domestic ducks, viral genes of LPAIV and HPAIV have been frequently detected in the same individual. To assess the influence of LPAIV on the pathogenicity of H5 HPAIV in domestic ducks, an experimental co-infection study was performed. One-week-old domestic ducks were inoculated intranasally and orally with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (control) or 106 EID50 of LPAIVs (A/duck/Vietnam/LBM678/2014 (H6N6) or A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM694/2014 (H9N2)). Seven days later, these ducks were inoculated with HPAIV (A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM808/2015 (H5N6)) in the same manner. The respective survival rates were 100% and 50% in ducks pre-infected with LBM694 or LBM678 strains and both higher than the survival of the control group (25%). The virus titers in oral/cloacal swabs of each LPAIV pre-inoculation group were significantly lower at 3–5 days post-HPAIV inoculation. Notably, almost no virus was detected in swabs from surviving individuals of the LBM678 pre-inoculation group. Antigenic cross-reactivity among the viruses was not observed in the neutralization test. These results suggest that pre-infection with LPAIV attenuates the pathogenicity of HPAIV in domestic ducks, which might be explained by innate and/or cell-mediated immunity induced by the initial infection with LPAIV.
Viral infection damages honeybee colony health. Viruses can be carried by queen bees and apicultural production materials when imported from foreign countries. We investigated seven honeybee viruses in worker bees (Apis mellifera) from 26 healthy apiaries in Gifu, Japan between 2018 and 2019. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) was detected in 23 (88.5%) of the apiaries, followed by Israeli acute paralysis virus (42.3%), deformed wing virus (DWV) (38.5%), and sacbrood virus (3.8%). In phylogenetic analysis, BQCV and DWV in Gifu were related to those in China and South Korea. Additionally, a high prevalence of BQCV was observed among worker bees in BQCV-positive colonies. Therefore, BQCV horizontal transmission among worker bees may contribute to the high prevalence of BQCV in Gifu.