Although the gallbladder is one of the characteristic component of the vertebrate body, it has been independently lost in several lineages of mammals and birds. Gallbladder loss is a widely reported phenomenon; however, there have been few descriptive comparisons of entire hepatobiliary structures between birds with and without a gallbladder. Here, we discuss the evolution of avian hepatobiliary morphology by describing the gross anatomy of the hepatobiliary system in the quail and pigeon. Quails have two major extrahepatic bile ducts: the right cystic-enteric duct, which has a gallbladder, and the left hepatic-enteric duct, which does not. Together with two pancreatic ducts, they share one opening to the ascending part of duodenum. Pigeons lack a gallbladder, but also have two extrahepatic ducts similar to those of quails. However, the hepatic-enteric duct opens solely to the descending part of the duodenum close to the stomach. The pancreatic duct opens to the very posterior part of the duodenum independent from the biliary tracts, giving rise to three separate openings in the duodenum. The hepatobiliary anatomy of the pigeon represents a highly derived condition not only because of gallbladder loss. Avian gallbladder loss may be related to remodeling of the entire hepatobiliary system, and may have occurred via a different mechanism from that of mammals, which can be explained simply by the disappearance of the gallbladder primordium.
We examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of 848 Escherichia coli isolates from 237 feces samples of wild sika deer (Cervus nippon) captured between 2016 and 2019 in 39 of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Five of the 237 wild sika deer (2.1%) carried E. coli with resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and all the resistant isolates showed resistance to tetracycline. The resistant isolates contained antimicrobial resistance genes that were similar to those in E. coli derived from humans and farm animals. Although wild sika deer are not currently likely to be a source for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance in Japan, they can potentially mediate antimicrobial resistance spread by coming into contact with humans, animals, and their surroundings.
Mammary tumors are the most common tumors in women and non-spayed female dogs. One of the reasons for mammary tumors is mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA2. BRCA2 participates in homologous recombination repair by interacting with the RAD51 recombinase. BRCA2 has two RAD51-binding domains, consisting of BRC repeats and the C-terminal RAD51-binding domain, respectively. Although several studies have addressed the function of the C-terminal RAD51-binding domain of human BRCA2, the amino acid sequences required for the RAD51-interaction activity remain unclear. In this study, the C-terminal RAD51-binding domains of canine and human BRCA2 were compared; the canine domain displayed a weaker interaction with RAD51. This difference was attributed to the C-terminal portion of the domain via a comparison between canine and human domains. Furthermore, peptides shorter than those previously reported displayed RAD51-interacting activity, and a core motif of this domain consisting of 25 amino acids was identified. Since a mutation (S3323N) was reported in the core motif of this domain, the effect of this mutation was evaluated. The mutant exhibited similar RAD51-binding activity as that of the wild-type protein, suggesting that the mutation was functionally neutral. These data suggested that the C-terminal portion of the BRCA2 C-terminal RAD51-binding domain influenced its RAD51-interaction activity, and a minimum core motif of 25 amino acids was identified in this domain. These data may help clarify BRCA2 function, as well as the tumorigenic effects of BRCA2 mutation.
Point-of-care (POC) devices that veterinary practitioners can use to easily and rapidly measure blood ionized calcium (iCa) levels in cows immediately after withdrawing a blood sample on the dairy farm are needed. Aims of present studies was to compare the commercially available ion-selective electrode handheld iCa meter (bovine blood iCa checker) with the benchtop blood gas analyzer GEM premier 3500 and handheld analyzer i-STAT 1. Sixty-two paired-point whole blood samples were obtained from three cows with hypocalcemia experimentally induced by Na2-EDTA infusion. Whole blood samples were also obtained from the 36 cows kept on a farm in field conditions. The results using the bovine blood iCa checker correlated with those using the GEM premier 3500 and i-STAT 1. Bovine blood iCa checker was “compatible” with the GEM premier 3500 and i-STAT 1 because the frequency of differences between the measurements within ± 20% of the mean were 100% (65/65, >75%) and 90.8% (59/65, >75%), respectively. In the field trial, the blood iCa concentration measured by the bovine blood Ca checker was significantly positively correlated with that measured by the i-STAT 1 portable analyzer. Bovine blood iCa checker was “compatible” with the i-STAT 1 because the frequency of differences between the measurements within ± 20% of the mean was 100% (36/36, >75%). Results from these findings, the bovine blood iCa checker may be applied as a simplified system to measure the iCa concentration in bovine whole blood.
Carboplatin is used to treat certain cancers in dogs and cats and is routinely administered via intravenous drip (IVD). Subcutaneous (SC) administration has also been described. However, the toxicity, serum concentrations, and area under blood concentration-time curves (AUCs) of SC carboplatin are unknown. This study aimed to compare serum carboplatin concentrations in dogs after SC and IVD and to monitor any adverse events. In this crossover study, five dogs received SC or IV carboplatin (300 mg/m2). After a minimum of 3 weeks, each dog received the other treatment. No gross skin toxicity or abnormal clinical signs were observed in any of the dogs. Blood test abnormalities were detected in most dogs. Decreased neutrophil and platelet counts, and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were found. There was no significant difference in the neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and CRP scores between the groups. Systemic toxicities of SC carboplatin were comparable to those of IVD carboplatin. The time to maximum carboplatin concentration after SC was longer than that after IVD (P<0.001). SC carboplatin remained in the serum longer than IVD carboplatin (P=0.008). The AUC of SC was less than that of IVD (P=0.002). The AUC and time taken to reach the maximum concentration of SC carboplatin were lower than those of IVD carboplatin. This study suggests that SC carboplatin may be an efficacious option for the treatment of tumors in dogs, particularly where IVD administration is challenging.
The aims of studies were to estimate the withdrawal period of antibiotic from milk after the intramammary infusion of cefazolin sodium (CEZ) in cows with difficulties in frequent milk discharge due to disease such as teat injury. The period was compared among cows milked twice a day after 150 or 450 mg of CEZ were administered to all quarters (Study 1, 2) and the cows in which milking of front-right quarter was ceased for five days after administration of these infusions to only that quarter (Study 3). In Studies 1 and 2, the median of 17.66 µg/ml and 83.18 µg/ml of CEZ were detected in the samples of first milking after intramammary administration, respectively; however, there was no residual antibiotic by 72 hr in all cows. In Study 3, the median of 1.96 µg/ml of CEZ was detected in the sample after the resumption of milking at 120 hr, and the residual was eliminated by 174 hr. The withdrawal period may be prolonged by the cessation of milking after administration, and the period is the total time from cessation to 72 hr after the resumption of milking.
Cleanliness of milking equipment is known to be important for the safety of dairy products and to prevent the spread of diseases among cows. We investigated the cleaning procedures of milking equipment and suckling equipment on Japanese dairy farms, and the cleanliness of bucket milkers, suckling buckets, milk receivers, and bulk tanks, using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence test. Bulk tanks (except one bulk tank) and milk receivers were washed by automated cleaning, but all bucket milkers and suckling buckets were washed by manual cleaning. Detergents were often not used to clean bucket milkers and suckling buckets. The log10 transformed relative luminescence units (LRLU) of equipment washed by manual cleaning was higher than equipment washed by automated cleaning. Clean surfaces (≤2.2 LRLU) were only observed on the bulk tank and the milk receiver. More than 50% of the LRLU of the mouthpiece, the rubber packing of claw, and the nipple of the suckling bucket were determined dirty. These results suggest that the cleanliness of the bucket milkers and the suckling buckets washed by manual cleaning was lower than that of the equipment washed by automated cleaning, and may be due to insufficient cleaning procedures.
In dogs, pancreatic acinar cell injury is thought to be caused by decreased pancreatic blood flow due to heart failure. In previous our report, it demonstrated that decreased heart function causes a significant decrease in pancreatic blood flow in heart failure dog model caused by rapid ventricular pacing (RVP). However, the types of histopathological changes remain unclear. We aimed to verify the types of histopathological changes occurring in the pancreatic tissue due to decreased heart function. After RVP for 4 weeks, atrophy of pancreatic acinar cells, characterized by a decrease in zymogen granules, was observed in all areas of the pancreas. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that attention should be paid to ischemia/hypoperfusion injury in the pancreas.
A 2-year, 3-month-old Holstein cow presented with anorexia and enlarged superficial lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the superficial lymph nodes revealed large blast cells. Hematological examination revealed anemia, neutropenia, and blast cells in peripheral blood. Blast cells were the predominant cell type in bone marrow aspirates. Of the non-erythroid cells, 26%, 58%, and 18% were positive for myeloperoxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase, respectively. Pathological examination revealed the proliferation of neoplastic cells, which were positive for monocytic markers, in the affected lymph nodes. The cow was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia based on these findings. This report highlights the importance of performing bone marrow aspiration cytology and cytochemical staining when diagnosing bovine myeloid leukemia.
We hypothesized that the serum iron (Fe) concentration in cows with respiratory diseases is a satisfactory substitute for major inflammatory markers such as haptoglobin (HPT) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Twenty Japanese Black cows aged 279.6 ± 120.0 days were enrolled, and divided into respiratory diseases and control groups based on the presence of clinical findings of respiratory diseases. As a result, area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for plasma HPT, SAA and serum Fe concentrations for respiratory disease-associated systemic inflammation were excellent, at 1.00, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. Therefore we confirmed that the serum Fe concentration is a satisfactory substitute for HPT and SAA in beef cows with respiratory diseases.
We investigated the effect of oral administration of β-cryptoxanthin (β-CRX) on its serum concentration and peripheral neutrophil functions by the chemiluminescence (CL) response in Holstein cattle. A single oral administration of β-CRX was performed for serum β-CRX concentration (0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/kg body weight [BW]) and for peak CL response of peripheral neutrophils (0.2 mg/kg BW). The serum β-CRX concentration was peaked on 2 days after, similar to peak CL response on 3 days after β-CRX administration. Therefore, a single oral administration of β-CRX (0.2 mg/kg BW) induces higher serum concentration and concurrently enhances bactericidal ability of peripheral neutrophils in Holstein cattle.
CD20 and CD3 are considered reliable markers for B and T cells, respectively. This study aimed to develop a rapid multiple immunofluorescence (RMIF) method for the detection of CD20 and CD3 on a single cytology slide. Air-dried smears were prepared using samples collected from dogs (n=26) and cats (n=6). Immunosignal detection using the newly developed method required 60 min. Clear immunosignals for CD20 and CD3 were detected in 24 of 26 samples in dogs and in all 6 cats. As the RMIF (CD20/CD3) method can detect markers of both B and T cells simultaneously on a single cytology smear, it would be an efficient tool for the immunophenotyping of canine and feline lymphoma samples.
Wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS) is a serious disease in captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies. Because of the high mortality rates, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms is essential. In this study, we compared the histopathology, the number of each epithelial cell in the jejunum and colon, and the expression patterns of some molecular markers between healthy and WMS-affected marmosets. Atrophy of villi in the jejunum and mononuclear cell infiltration in the lamina propria were observed in the intestinal tract of WMS-affected marmosets. Although the numbers of transient amplifying cells and tuft cells were increased, the number of goblet cells was obviously decreased in the jejunum and colon of WMS-affected marmosets compared to healthy marmosets. In addition, the number of enterocytes in the jejunum was decreased in WMS animals. There was no apparent difference in the numbers of stem cells, enteroendocrine cells, or Paneth cells. The expression of β-catenin and Tcf7l2 was increased in WMS, and the co-existence of β-catenin and Tcf7l2/Cyclin D1 was observed around the crypts in WMS-affected marmosets. These findings suggest that cell proliferation continues, but cell differentiation is halted in the intestinal tract due to the enhanced β-catenin/Tcf7l2/Cyclin D1signaling pathway in WMS, which results in malfunction of the villus and mucosa.
This study was performed to examine and clarify the cause of hindlimb ataxia and neuropathy seen in the South Korean horse population. Fifty horses diagnosed with hindlimb ataxia and neuropathy were referred for this study. Neurological examination was performed on 47 horses while necropsy was performed in all 50 animals. The occurrence of neurological diseases increased rapidly in the summer and 47 out of 50 horses were referred after the end of July. The incidence of neurological diseases started from the southern part of Korea in July and proceeded northward in August and September. Although there was no correlation with age, Thoroughbred and Warmblood horses showed a higher incidence rate than Halla and Jeju horses. The incidence rate was 5 times higher in geldings than in mares and stallions. Of the 20 cases, 16 were diagnosed with eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis in 2015. The most common lesions observed in 2016 were parasitic meningoencephalomyelitis (10 cases, 33%) and eosinophilic meningomyelitis (7 cases, 23%). Histopathological analysis of the brain and spinal cord revealed nematodes of approximately 100–200 µm in diameter, microcavitation and infiltrates of eosinophils, and brown pigmented macrophage infiltrates. The nematodes were identified as Setaria digitata via DNA sequencing, performed subsequent to polymerase chain reaction using DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of the spinal cord. These results show that aberrant migration of Setaria digitata larva in the brain and spinal cord was a major cause for neurological signs in horses.
Renin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the kidney control the renin-angiotensin and tubuloglomerular feedback systems. The present study investigated the expression of renin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the dysplastic kidneys of three young dogs. Renin-immunoreactivity, which occurs in the juxtaglomerular and tubular cells of dysplastic kidneys, did not differ from that in the normal kidneys of young dogs. Macula densa cells in the normal kidneys showed neuronal nitric oxide synthase -immunoreactivity, but those in the dysplastic kidneys showed no apparent signals. This observation may be correlated with the pathological mechanisms of renal failure in young dogs.
Twenty-three of 42 European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), belonging to the same rabbit colony, died in March 2020 (55% mortality) in Chiba prefecture, Japan. The disease course was extremely acute without indicators of death or hemorrhage. Necropsy revealed liver swelling, discoloration, cloudiness and fragility, and pulmonary edema. Histologically, severe hepatocellular necrosis (mainly peripheral) and intra-glomerular capillary hyalin thrombi were observed. On molecular-biological examination, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of RNA from tissues detected a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, confirmed as a RHDV-2 VP60 fragment, which shared 99.42% nucleotide identity with the homologous fragment of RHDV-2 German isolate by nucleotide sequence analysis. This report shows the outbreak of rabbit hemorrhagic disease caused by RHDV-2, an emerging infectious disease, in Japan.
Mediastinal masses in dogs were diagnosed as basaloid carcinoma associated with multiple thymic cysts (MTCs). The masses were composed of MTCs and proliferating intracystic neoplastic basaloid cells, which immunohistochemically diffusely expressed p63 and cytokeratin 19. A gradual transition from the basal cell layers lining the cysts walls to the neoplastic cells was seen, and it was indicated that the neoplastic cells had originated from the basal cell layers of the cysts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of basaloid carcinoma occurring in the mediastinal cavity in dogs. Although these tumors were demonstrated to be rare origins, basaloid carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnoses for canine mediastinal tumors.
A year-round molecular epidemiological survey (2017 to 2018) was conducted on three hemoplasmas and two Bartonella species with zoonotic potential in client-owned cats in Beijing and Shanghai. Among 668 specimens, the overall hemoplasma-positive rate was 4.9% (3.4% for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 0.9% for Mycoplasma haemofelis and 1.2% for Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis). The overall Bartonella-positive rate was 8.5% (4.8% for B. henselae and 4.3% for B. clarridgeiae). Age, breed, ectoparasiticide use and stray history, but not city, season and gender, were significantly associated with the positive rates of one or more pathogens. This is also the first report on the prevalence of Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis in cats in China.
This prospective, comparative, randomized, horizontal, and double-blind clinical study investigated the clinical efficacy of leucocyte-poor platelet-rich plasma (PRP, n=8) or allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC, n=8) in dogs with bilateral degenerative hip joint disease (DHJD). Sixteen dogs were treated with two intra-articular injections of PRP or ADSCs, within a 30-day interval. The Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), the Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI), and Visual Analogue Scales for pain (VAS-pain) and locomotion (VAS-loc) were assessed by the dog owners. Analysis-of-gait using a force plate, response to palpation (VAS-palp), and the descriptive numerical scale for pain (DNS) were measured by a veterinarian. The assessments were performed before (baseline), 30 and 60 days after the first treatment. Data were analyzed using the unpaired t test, paired Wilcoxon test, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests (P<0.05). Compared with baseline HCPI, CBPI, VAS-pain, and VAS-palp scores reduced 41%, 52%, 51%, and 48% (P=0.0001–0.03) at 60 days in the ADSC group. In PRP-treated dogs, CBPI, VAS-loc, and DNS scores decreased by 43%, 43%, and 33% at 60 days, respectively (P=0.0003–0.011). Based on CBPI data, the rate of success at 60 days was 75% and 25% in the ADSC and PRP groups (P=0.13), respectively. Both therapies were apparently safe and effective to reduce chronic pain in dogs with bilateral DHJD during a 60-day period. However, a trend towards greater improvement was provided by the ADSC treatment.
Radioresistance and radiotoxicity have been reported following cancer treatments in felines. Optimizing radiation doses to induce cytotoxic effects to only cancer cells and not normal cells is critical in achieving effective radiation therapy; however, the mechanisms of radiation resistance, radiotoxicity, and DNA damage response (DDR) in feline cells have not yet been elucidated. A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most toxic type of DNA damage induced by X-rays and heavy ion beams used in treating cancers. Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells is one of the most widely used cat cells in life science research. Here, we report that DSB-triggered senescence induced by X-rays is important in inhibiting the proliferation of CRFK cells. We demonstrated through cell proliferation assay that X-rays at doses 2 Gy and 10 Gy are toxic to CRFK cells that irradiating CRFK cells inhibits their proliferation. In X-irradiated CRFK cells, a dose-dependent increase in DSB-triggered senescence was detected according to morphological changes and using senescence-associated β galactosidase staining assay. Moreover, our data indicated that in CRFK cells, the major DDR pathway, which involves the phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, was normally activated by ATM kinases. Our findings are useful in the understanding of X-rays-induced cellular senescence and in elucidating biological effects of radiation, e.g., toxicity, in feline cells. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the CRFK cell line is an excellent matrix for elucidating radioresistance and radiotoxicity in cat cells.
Feline noroviruses (FNoVs) are potential clinical pathogens in cats. To perform an epidemiological study of FNoV infection, it is necessary to develop a simple and effective method for virus detection. We investigated whether a commercial human NoV quantitative RT-PCR kit for the detection of human NoVs used in medical practice can be applied for FNoV detection. This kit was capable of detecting the FNoV gene regardless of the genogroup (GIV and GVI) in experimental and field samples. Based on the above findings, it is possible to detect FNoVs using human NoV tests. The relationship between FNoV infection and gastroenteritis in cats may be clarified by applying these methods to an epidemiological survey of FNoVs.
A 13-year-old Bornean orangutan diagnosed with life threatening Streptococcus pyogenes broncho-pneumonia was kept in a state of deep sedation for 20 days via continuous intra-venous (IV) infusion of zolazepam -tiletamine and IV haloperidol to allow consistent IV administration of ceftazidime and gatifloxacine. The use of long-term deep sedation allowed carrying out a particularly demanding treatment not generally associated with zoological patients. The treatment was ultimately successful.
There is a possibility that classical swine fever (CSF) virus outbreak has negative impacts on wild boar. To adequately manage native wild boar populations, wildlife managers need to gather the field data on wild boar and implement population management practices. We aimed to report the relative abundance index of wild boar before and after this outbreak. Our results showed that relative abundance index declined from 2017 (8.88 wild boars/100 trap days) to 2019 (2.03 wild boars/100 trap days), because of the negative impact of this virus and continuous culling programs. Although the eradication risk from the synergistic effect is low, wildlife managers need to consider the relationship between the trade-off between the risk of CSF and the conservation ecology risk of native species eradication.
Leptospira, Giardia intestinalis and Toxoplasma gondii infections are reported in humans and animals worldwide, but molecular surveillance of these pathogens in Korean wildlife is still limited. Here, we examined the prevalence of these pathogens in environmental feces of Eurasian otters, leopard cats and raccoon dogs using nested PCR followed by DNA sequencing. G. intestinalis was detected in all of three animals, while T. gondii was detected only in leopard cats. Leptospira wolffii was detected in raccoon dog and Eurasian otter. Our results suggest that these animals can act as a reservoir of these zoonotic pathogens. Consistent monitoring of these pathogens in wildlife is needed to prevent from their infections in humans and livestock in Korea.