In several primates and carnivores, pronation/supination angles of the forearm skeleton were examined, and it is thought that a larger angle is useful to acquire dexterous behaviors in feeding and/or life style, including climbing. In this study, the pronation/supination angles in Asiatic black, brown and polar bears were nondestructively examined. These specimens were classified as adult or non-adult. Three or four carcasses of each group of Asiatic black and brown bears were used for CT analysis, whereas only one adult polar bear was used. The forearms were positioned within the gantry of a CT scanner in both maximally supinated and pronated states. Extracted cross-sectional CT images of two positions were superimposed by overlapping the outlines of each ulna. The centroids of the radii were detected, and then the centroid of each radius and the midpoint of a line which connects between both ends of the surface of each radius facing the ulna, were connected by lines to measure the angle of rotation as an index of pronation/supination. In adult brown and polar bears, the angles were smaller as compared with the other groups (Asiatic black and non-adult brown bears). Asiatic black and non-adult brown bears can climb trees, whereas adult brown bears and polar bears cannot. This suggests that the pronation/supination angle is related to arboreal activity in Ursidae.
Genital bacterial infection is one of the most important causes of infertility, however, bacteria frequently exist in seminal fluid. Sperm express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on their cell surfaces and bacterial recognition by TLRs induces sperm apoptosis. In this study, we examined the lactoferrin (LF) potentiality on sperm apoptosis induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that TUNEL-positive sperm cells were scarce in the group treated with LF and LPS (LF/LPS group) compared to the group treated with LPS only (LPS group). In addition, real-time RT-PCR detected lower mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-associated genes in the LF/LPS group compared to the LPS group. These results indicate that LF treatment of semen might decrease LPS-induced apoptosis of sperm.
The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) is a small rodent species endemic to Japan. The genetic characteristics of A. speciosus include different chromosome numbers within the same species. Furthermore, A. speciosus has been used in radiation and genetic research. In the present study, a pregnant A. speciosus was obtained, and histochemical analysis of the implanted embryos was performed and compared with the developmental stages of the mouse (Mus musculus). Although there were some differences, the structures of the implanted embryos, including the primitive streak and placenta of A. speciosus were similar to those of mouse. Our study will be important for the construction of a developmental atlas of A. speciosus.
Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium that causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised people. In the present study, signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis was applied for the negative selection of R. equi mutants that cannot survive in vivo. Twenty-five distinguishable plasmid-transposon (plasposon) vectors by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), each containing a unique oligonucleotide tag, were constructed and used to select the transposon mutants that have in vivo fitness defects using a mouse systemic infection model. Of the 4,560 transposon mutants, 102 mutants were isolated via a real-time PCR-based screening as the mutants were unable to survive in the mouse model. Finally, 50 single transposon insertion sites were determined via the self-cloning strategy. The insertion of the transposon was seen on the virulence plasmid in 15 of the 50 mutants, whereas the remaining 35 mutants had the insertion of transposon on the chromosome. The chromosomal mutants contained transposon insertions in genes involved in cellular metabolism, DNA repair and recombination, gene regulation, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis, and unknown functions. Additionally, seven of the chromosomal mutants showed a reduced ability to multiply in the macrophages in vitro. In this study, we have identified several biosynthetic pathways as fitness factors associated with the growth within macrophages and survival in mice.
Wild birds are recognized as disseminators of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria into the environment. Here, we isolated AMR indicator bacteria from 198 Great Cormorant cloacal swabs collected in Shiga (n=90), Oita (n=52), Gifu (n=29), and Gunma (n=27) Prefectures, Japan, in 2018 and 2019. In total, 198 Aeromonas spp. and 194 Escherichia spp. were isolated, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was examined. Aeromonas spp. were resistant to colistin (8.6%), nalidixic acid (4%), and other antimicrobials (<2%), with 3.0% positivity for mcr-3. Escherichia spp. showed resistance to colistin (3.1%), ampicillin (2.6%), tetracycline (2.1%), and other antimicrobials (<2%). This study shows the presence of AMR bacteria in Great Cormorants, indicating that these birds potentially disseminate AMR bacteria.
A 13-year-old, female, mixed-breed dog with a huge cranial mediastinal mass underwent radiotherapy (RT). On the following day, the dog presented with lethargy and anorexia. Hematological examination revealed elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, inorganic phosphorus, potassium, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase, decreased calcium level, and metabolic acidosis. Urine output markedly decreased. The patient recovered with fluid therapy and diuretic therapy; however, died suddenly from an unknown cause 11 days after RT completion. Histopathological examination after necropsy showed thymoma in the cranial mediastinum and extensive tubular necrosis of both kidneys which may be due to RT-induced tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). This report suggests that the risk of TLS should be evaluated in dogs with thymoma who undergo RT.
This study aimed to determine the optimal placement of the region of interest (ROI) among four anatomical sites—pulmonary artery (PA), pulmonary vein (PV), aortic arch (AA), and carotid artery (CA)—in computed tomography (CT) brain angiography with automatic bolus tracking in healthy beagle dogs. Six beagles were included, and CT brain angiography was performed four times for each dog, to cover each ROI. The scan parameters, amount, and injection rate of the contrast medium were the same. The major intracranial arteries were selected for quantitative and qualitative evaluation: caudal cerebellar artery (CcA), basilar artery (BA), rostral cerebellar artery (RcA), caudal cerebral artery (CCA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and rostral cerebral artery (RCA). Quantitative evaluation showed significantly higher CT attenuation values for the RcA, CCA, and MCA in the PA group and RcA and MCA in the PV group than in the CA group. Qualitative analysis revealed significantly higher scores for the BA, CCA, and MCA in the PA and PV groups than in the CA group. Venous contamination did not differ significantly among the ROIs, but the mean scores of the AA and CA groups were higher than those of the PA and PV groups. CT brain angiography using bolus tracking in the beagle dogs showed that the ROI should be placed at the PA or PV rather than at the CA for optimal images with strong contrast enhancement of the BA, RcA, CCA, and MCA and minimal venous contamination.
Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is known to induce hypercoagulability and resultant thromboembolism in dogs. We hypothesized that hypercoagulability would improve if remission was obtained in dogs with PLE after treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the coagulation parameters after treatment in dogs diagnosed with PLE. As coagulation parameters, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), D-dimer, and antithrombin (AT) were measured. In addition to these parameters, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), which evaluates the comprehensive coagulation and fibrinolysis reactions of whole blood, was conducted and the data of clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α angle (α), maximum clot firmness (MCF) and lysis index at 60 min (LI60) were obtained. Eleven of the 14 dogs diagnosed with PLE were classified as responders to the treatment based on the changes in their plasma albumin (ALB) concentration after treatment. Significant increase in CFT and decrease of α and MCF indicating the resolution of hypercoagulability were found after treatment in responder dogs; however, there was no significant change in the coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters other than those measured by ROTEM. This study demonstrated that the hypercoagulability detected by ROTEM was significantly improved after treatment in dogs with PLE.
Severe adverse reactions after rabies vaccination in dogs were examined from 317 cases reported to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) in Japan during 15-year period from April 2004 to March 2019. We found that 109 of the 317 dogs showed anaphylaxis (0.15/100,000 vaccinated dogs), and 71 of the 109 cases of anaphylaxis resulted in death (0.10/100,000 vaccinated dogs). We measured bovine serum albumin (BSA) in four commercially available rabies vaccines and found the levels ranged from 0.1 to 16.6 µg/dose. Our survey showed that the rate of anaphylaxis to rabies vaccines in dogs is rare, although some cases of anaphylaxis resulted in death. Veterinarians should be well prepared to deal with vaccine-associated anaphylaxis.
Tegafur is a prodrug of fluoropyrimidine 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), while TS-1TM is an oral fixed-dose combination of three active drugs, tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil. This pilot study evaluated the safety of tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil in the treatment of cancers in dogs. Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil was administered orally at a mean dose of 1.1 mg/kg twice daily on alternate days, Monday-Wednesday-Friday, every week to 11 dogs with tumors. Partial response and stable disease were observed in one dog each, whereas six exhibited progressive disease. Three dogs were not assessed. Adverse events, the most serious being grade 2, were noted in seven dogs. Adverse events were acceptable, and the drug was effective in some dogs. Therefore, tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil may be useful for treating malignant solid tumors in canines.
We determined the nucleotide sequence of the growth hormone (Gh) gene in Mus minutoides, one of the smallest mammals, where was predicted to be distinct in the functional regions between M. minutoides and Mus musculus. To investigate the evolutionary characteristics of Gh in M. minutoides, we constructed a phylogenetic tree based on the putative amino acid sequences of Gh, suggesting that the Gh of M. minutoides diverged earlier than M. musculus. Furthermore, the Gh gene expressed higher in M. minutoides than in M. musculus. Our results suggest that the specific feature of the Gh in M. minutoides is in rather the regulatory mechanism than the sequence.
Cats are an important host of Toxoplasma gondii from an epidemiological perspective because they are the only definitive hosts that excrete oocysts in their feces. In this study, 201 free-ranging cats in Okinawa were examined for T. gondii infection. Using the latex agglutination test, we detected antibodies against T. gondii in 26.9% (54/201) of the cats. Oocysts of T. gondii were not detected upon microscopic examination of the feces of 128 cats. T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 9 out of 24 seropositive or pseudo-seropositive cats with a bioassay using laboratory mice. Genotyping for the GRA6 gene revealed that five and four of the isolates were type I and II, respectively.
Dourine, caused by infection with Trypanosoma equiperdum, is one of the trypanosomiasis in equids. The clinical course of dourine is long-term, ranging from 1–2 months to several years. Since the pathogenesis of dourine has not yet been elucidated, experimental studies using mouse infection models are needed. Although mice are not susceptible to most T. equiperdum strains, some strains can infect mice. Even in such strains, infected mice develop rapidly transient parasitemia and die within 2–8 days. Therefore, mice experimentally infected with these T. equiperdum strains are not suitable for mouse infection models to analysis the pathogenesis of dourine. A sequential method of isolating parasites from dourine-affected horses and adapting them to in vitro cultures using soft agarose media was recently developed. Various T. equiperdum strains adapted to in vitro conditions have been established using this technique. We used one of these strains, the T. equiperdum IVM-t2 strain. In the present study, T. equiperdum IVM-t2 strain inoculated mice developed periodic parasitemia during the experimental period of 60 days. Histopathologically, vaginitis and dermatitis were observed. These findings were comparable to those of dourine-affected horses. Therefore, mice infected with T. equiperdum IVM-t2 strain may be a valuable tool for pathological, immunological, and parasitological in vivo research, and will contribute to investigations on the mechanisms underlying the disease process and the host-parasite relationship.
Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor in cats, although there are few reports about their pathological features. To investigate the histopathological subtypes and immunohistochemical features including expression of cytokeratin and cell adhesion molecules, 45 cases of feline meningioma were examined. The mean age was 12.5 years (range 6–21 years). No statistically significant sex predilection was observed. Regarding the anatomical location of meningioma, tumors mostly developed in the cerebrum, followed by spinal cord and cerebellum, and multiple meningioma was observed in one cat. Microscopically, linear or focal mineralization was observed in 40 cases and cholesterol cleft was observed in 14 cases. Based on histopathological subtypes, there were 15 fibrous, 22 transitional, 2 meningothelial, 5 atypical, and 1 anaplastic meningiomas. These subtypes are classified into grade 1 (39 cases), grade 2 (5 cases), and grade 3 (1 case). There was no significant difference in the Ki-67 index among histological subtypes or grades. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin in 5 cases (12.8%), vimentin in 17 cases (43.6%), E-cadherin in 36 cases (92.3%), β-catenin in 21 cases (53.8%), and N-cadherin in 1 case (2.6%), demonstrating the utility of E-cadherin-immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of feline meningiomas.
Bovine mastitis, caused by Prototheca bovis, has received much attention worldwide. To investigate the status of P. bovis infection in dairy farms of Hubei, we collected 1,158 milk samples and 90 environmental samples from 14 dairy farms of Hubei, China. The isolates were identified with traditional biological methods and molecular biological techniques, and their pathogenicity was tested through mice infection experiments. Isolates from 57 milk and 20 environmental samples were identified as P. bovis. The mice infection tests proved that the isolated P. bovis could cause mastitis in mice, manifesting as severe red swelling of the mammary glands. Histopathological analysis of tissue sections showed necrosis and nodules lesions formed in the infected mice mammary tissue, accompanied by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration. These results suggested the existence of pathogenic P. bovis in dairy farms of the Hubei province, China, with brewer’s grains and fresh feces possibly playing important roles in the spread of this disease.
A 24-year-old, Thoroughbred gelding presented with difficulty breathing for a few days and intermittent nose bleeding before dying. At necropsy, the bronchoesophageal artery and the bronchial artery that flowed into the left anterior lobe were tortuous and dilated, and it was found that dilated tortuous branches of the bronchial artery ran over the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the left anterior lobe. Histopathologically, an anastomosis between a muscular artery and an elastic artery were demonstrated, which were identified as bronchial and pulmonary arteries, respectively. Based on the gross and histopathological findings, a bronchopulmonary artery fistula was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pulmonary vascular anastomosis in a horse.
Borneol is a traditional Chinese medicine. In Chinese veterinary clinics, borneol and its related compounds are often used in combination with florfenicol to treat respiratory infections. This study investigated whether the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in rats was affected by its concomitant use with borneol. Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically administered borneol (50 mg/kg body weight (BW)) or 0.5% carboxymethyl-cellulose sodium for 7 consecutive days, and then intragastrically administered florfenicol (25 mg/kg BW) on the eighth day. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that borneol significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-t)), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), and the peak concentration (Cmax) values of florfenicol, whereas the values of mean residence time from zero to infinity (MRT(0-t)), elimination half-life (t1/2z), apparent volume of distribution fraction of the dose absorbed (Vz), and plasma clearance fraction of the dose absorbed (CLz) were increased significantly. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) and cytochrome P450 3A1 (CYP3A1) in the jejunum and of CYP1A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were significantly upregulated by borneol. In conclusion, borneol decreased absorption, increased clearance, improved distribution, and increased the mean residence time of florfenicol in rats, possibly through regulating the mRNA expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters.
Workers in poultry abattoirs may be frequently exposed to Campylobacter jejuni, which is a leading cause of bacterial food poisoning in Japan. The present study was conducted to measure the titers of IgG and IgA antibodies against C. jejuni among 104 female workers in a chicken processing plant in Miyazaki prefecture, Japan. Information regarding habitual ingestion of raw chicken meat and potential occupational risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. Acid extracts of four C. jejuni strains representing the genotypes most dominant in Miyazaki were used as antigens. The levels of both immunoglobulins measured by ELISA were not correlated with ingestion of edible raw chicken meat, the amount consumed in one sitting, or its frequency. Although age was correlated with antibody levels, the length of employment was not. Furthermore, the IgG and IgA levels in workers at the evisceration step were significantly higher than those at other locations in the plant. To identify the bacterial proteins recognized by the workers’ IgG and IgA antibodies, Western blotting followed by LC/MS was conducted. Flagellin was identified as the common protein recognized in the sera of workers for whom ELISA demonstrated both the highest and lowest antibody levels. We concluded that the titers of IgG and IgA against C. jejuni in workers at the processing plant had been increased by occupational exposure to Campylobacter, regardless of raw chicken meat ingestion.
This study aimed to describe the anatomical topography of the abdominal cavity of buffaloes in the quadruped position to establish the best endosurgical access and vantage points and identify possible limitations. Laparoscopies were performed on 10 healthy female buffaloes obtained from the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia to explore possible access points to the abdomen. Techniques for assessing and possibly observing certain organs and structures through the left and right flanks of 10 animals have been described. In five animals, access was created through the right side of the last intercostal space to allow more cranial access to the abdominal cavity. Despite the presence of the rumen, access through the left flank allowed the visualization of the structures of the gastrointestinal tract and the genitourinary system. With access through the right flank, however, imaging was hampered by the presence of the greater omentum and its deep and superficial walls, which prevented the progression of the endoscope. Access through the last right intercostal space allowed the visualization of the cranial structures of the abdominal cavity, such as the caudate process, right lobe of the liver, right kidney, and pancreas. Laparoscopic access through the left flank and the last intercostal space in healthy buffaloes in the quadruped position is feasible, and it is promising for the exploration, diagnosis, and treatment of various disorders in buffaloes.
Keratometry was performed in 73 domestic cats of varied signalment in Japan using an automated handheld keratometer. The mean corneal curvature radius was significantly lower for cats younger than 1 year than for those older than 2 years (8.04 mm vs. 8.80−8.99 mm, P<0.01). The radius was significantly greater in males than in females among the cats older than 11 years (9.22 mm vs. 8.84 mm, P=0.01), while the age distributions of the males and females were similar. Corneal astigmatism did not significantly differ across the gender and age groups. The predictability of the corneal curvature and astigmatism was approximately 41−43% and less than 3%, respectively, as a function of age and bodyweight. The results highlighted some age- and sex-related keratometric variations in domestic cats in Japan.
The Cap of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) can be assembled into virus like particles (VLPs) in vitro that have multiple loops located on the particle surface. This would make it a good vehicle for displaying exogenous proteins or epitopes. We derived two epitopes, epitope B (EpB, S37HIQLIYNL45) and epitope 7 (Ep7, Q196WGRL200) from Gp5 of the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). We replaced the core region of Loop CD (L75PPGGGSN82) and the carboxyl terminus (K222DPPL226) of PCV2 Cap, respectively, to construct a bi-epitope chimeric PCV2 Cap. Its immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated as one PRRSV subunit vaccine. The chimeric PCV2 Cap was soluble, efficiently expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system, and could be self-assembled into chimeric virus like particles (cVLPs) with a diameter of 12–15 nm. Western blotting confirmed that the cVLPs could be specifically recognized by anti-PCV2, anti-EpB and anti-Ep7 antibodies. The cVLPs vaccine could alleviate the clinical symptoms and reduce the viral loads after HP-PRRSV challenge in 100–120 days old pigs. These data suggest that the cVLPs vaccine could provide pigs with partial protection against homologous PRRSV strains, and it provides a new design for additional PRRSV subunit vaccines.
For broad detection of pestivirus A (bovine viral diarrhea virus 1: BVDV1) and pestivirus B (BVDV2) by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) test, the P25 primer set was designed using nucleotide sequences of 5’-UTR region of 1454 BVDVs. The base coverage of each primer against diverse BVDVs were more than 99% in each base position. The one step LAMP test with the P25 primer set could detect both BVDV1 (TK) and BVDV2 (KZ), but did not amplify 5 other bovine viruses. Detection limit of the LAMP test was 103 copies of synthesized DNAs, and 10−3 and 10−4 dilutions of viral RNAs of TK and KZ strains, respectively, whereas that with current Aebischer’s primer set was 10−2 dilution and negative of these RNAs, respectively. All of the 63 viral RNA samples of persistently infected (PI) cattle, consisting of the 1a (12), 1b (31), 1c (11), and 2a (9) subgenotypes, were broadly detected with the P25, while only 65% of them were positive with Aebischer’s primer set. The validation study showed that the RT-LAMP test with the P25 had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity against that with updated Vilcek’s PCR primers. Also, by using the P26 primer set which contained 3 species-specific primers, all 63 RNA samples were clearly distinguished from BVDV1 or BVDV2 by the typing RT-LAMP test. These results indicate that the one step RT-LAMP test using P25 or P26 primer sets would be useful for broad detection and rapid differentiation of BVDV1 and BVDV2.
Felis catus papillomavirus (FcaPV), especially type 2 (FcaPV2) is considered as one of the causative agents in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in cats. However, our previous study detected FcaPV3 and FcaPV4, but not FcaPV2 in feline SCCs collected in Japan, suggesting that the prevalence of FcaPV2 in SCC may vary depending on geographic locations. To evaluate this hypothesis, two conventional PCR reactions targeting E1 and E7 genes were performed to detect FcaPV2 in feline SCC samples collected in Taiwan and Japan. While 46.9% (23/49) of feline SCC cases from Taiwan were PCR positive for FcaPV2, only 8.6% (3/35) cases from Japan were positive. Our result suggests that the prevalence of FcaPV2 in feline SCCs may depend on the region.
The detection of bovine foamy virus (BFV) in Vietnamese cattle was performed using conventional PCR targeting pol and gag genes. Out of 243 tested samples, ten (4.1%) and eight (3.3%) samples were positive for BFV gag and pol DNA, respectively. The prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) estimated by detection of proviral DNA using nested PCR targeting env gene was 26.7% (65/243). The results of nucleotide sequence alignment and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Vietnamese BFV strains showed high homology to isolates belonging to either European or non-European clades. There was no significant correlation between BLV and BFV. This study provides information regarding BFV infection and confirms the existence of two BFV clades among Vietnamese cattle for the first time.
Ophidiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, which has been affecting wild and captive snakes in North America, Europe, and Australia. We report 12 cases of suspected ophidiomycosis in captive colubrid snakes in Japan. Pathological and microbiological examinations were performed, and the results confirmed the diagnosis of ophidiomycosis in two snakes, which indicated that the remaining sympatrically raised snakes also had ophidiomycosis since they exhibited similar lesions. This is the first report of ophidiomycosis in Asia caused by O. ophiodiicola. To prevent the expansion of ophidiomycosis in the natural environment in Japan, there is a need to evaluate the ophidiomycosis carrier status of imported snakes, the pathogenicity of the infection in native snakes, and the prevalence and distribution of O. ophiodiicola in wild and captive snakes. Measures also must be taken to prevent endemicity globally.
We conducted a tuberculosis (TB) serosurveillance program of captive elephants in Nepal and compared hematology and biochemistry parameters between seropositive and seronegative elephants. A total of 153 elephants (male=20, female=133) from four national parks were tested for TB using the ElephantTB STAT-PAK® Assay (ChemBio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Medford, NY, USA). The mean reported age for 138 elephants was 38.5 years (range 2–71 years). Seroprevalence for TB was 21.56% (33/153). The majority of seropositive elephants were female (n=30) and from Chitwan National Park (n=29). The occurrence of TB seropositive cases in other more remote national parks suggests TB may be widespread among the captive elephant population of Nepal. Hematology and biochemistry analyses were performed on 13 and 22 seropositive elephants, respectively and, nine elephants from a seronegative TB herd for comparison. Hematology parameters (hemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelet, white blood cells, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were comparable between the two groups. Total protein, globulin, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in seronegative elephants, and bilirubin was significantly higher in seropositive elephants whereas blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase (GOT/AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase/alanine aminotransferase (GPT/ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GT), and albumin were not significantly different. The range of biochemical parameters that were significantly different between seropositive and seronegative elephants had narrow ranges. Thus, the potential of these parameters as a direct biomarker for TB diagnosis is limited based on the findings in this study. We recommend including blood parameters in future TB surveillance studies.
The aim of this study is to describe radiographic, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic appearance of normal cinereous vulture’s eye and to determine normal biometric values of intraocular structures. Twenty-six eyes of thirteen healthy cinereous vultures were examined. Under general anesthesia with isoflurane, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and skull radiography were performed. Differences between both eyes as well as between US and CT measurements were investigated and correlation of measurements between both eyes as well as correlation between CT and US measurements of the various ocular structures were calculated. Most of paired data did not show any significant differences between both eyes and the CT and US measurements, while there were significant differences (P<0.05) between CT and US measurements of depth of both vitreous and anterior chambers, and axial length of the lens in right eyes. There was also a significant difference (P<0.05) between both eyes in depth of vitreous measured by CT. All the measurements had strong correlations between both eyes and between US and CT. In conclusion, ocular imaging techniques provided useful data of biometry and morphology, showing good correlation between CT and US in cinereous vulture’s eye. Especially, when ophthalmoscopic examinations would not be available due to opaque anterior segment, imaging techniques could be essential for diagnosing and managing of the eye.
Oocysts of Isospora sp. were detected in the feces of a veiled chameleon (family Chamaeleonidae; Chamaeleo calyptratus) kept at a zoo in Ishikawa, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis placed the sequence in the cluster of Isospora spp. isolated from reptiles. Based on a comparison of morphological data of ten previously reported Isospora species from the Chamaeleonidae family, this isolate was morphologically similar to I. jaracimrmani, which has been considered to be a virulent species. This case study suggests the possibility that species of Isospora might not always cause disease because the animal that shed these oocysts showed no symptoms for more than two months.