The carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic bacterium and frequently causes hospital-acquired infections in humans. It also has increasingly been reported in veterinary medicine. This study illustrates multiple clones of carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii disseminating and causing diseases in dogs and cats in Thailand. Between 2016 and 2020, 44 A. baumannii and two A. pittii isolates exhibiting imipenem resistance (MIC≥16 μg/mL) from diagnostic samples were characterized by Pasteur multilocus sequence typing (MLST), sequence grouping (SG), repetitive extragenic palindromic element (rep)-PCR fingerprint analysis and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling. All isolates contained blaOXA-23 in the Tn2006 family, and A. baumannii showed the sequence type (ST) 16 (14/44), ST149 (12/44), ST25 (6/44), ST2 (4/44), ST1581 (3/44), ST23 (2/44), ST1575 (1/44) and ST1576 (1/44). DNA fingerprint analysis and SG illustrated clonal relationships in the STs and its single locus variants, and AMR gene profiles, including tetracycline and aminoglycoside resistance genes, showed minor variations in the clones. The findings suggest that blaOXA-23 has been spread in multiple clones of A. baumannii and A. pittii from canine and feline hosts. With the collection of multiple AMR genes and intrinsic resistance, antimicrobial options are limited for treatment, and pets can be a potential reservoir of extensively drug-resistant, carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii in the community. Epidemiological tracking by passive and active surveillance in animals, veterinary personnel and hospital environment and preventive measurements should be promoted to decrease the risk of infection and transmission to humans.
A 2-year-old male mongoose-scat-detection dog was diagnosed with leptospirosis by urine PCR. The patient developed acute renal failure, hepatic dysfunction, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Treatment with antibiotics was administered, including ampicillin and doxycycline, and supportive care management was provided. Seroconversion against serogroup Hebdomadis was observed on day 8. The leptospiral gene flaB was detected only in urine collected on day 1, from which Leptospira interrogans ST329 was identified by multilocus sequence typing using seven housekeeping genes. L. interrogans serogroup Hebdomadis ST329 has been isolated from mongooses and humans in Okinawa, Japan. This patient received early treatment with antibiotics, which may have contributed to the early recovery of renal function and removal of L. interrogans from kidney tissue.
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood is measured using the Japanese Society of Clinical Chemistry (JSCC) method in Japan and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method in other countries. In human clinical practice, the IFCC method replaced the JSCC method due to international standardization. Moreover, veterinary LDH measurement will also eventually shift to the IFCC method. However, the relationship between the IFCC and JSCC methods for LDH in various animals and whether they can be equated or not have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to present the changes in measurements in canines and felines after switching to the IFCC method. The plasma LDH activity of canines (N=177) and felines (N=115), who visited a secondary care veterinary clinic, was measured using the JSCC and IFCC methods. The IFCC/JSCC ratio was <1.0 in 85% of canines and 88% of felines, indicating that the IFCC method tended to show lower values than the JSCC method, presumably because LDH5 is dominant among the LDH isozymes in canines and felines. The increase in the systematic errors of both assays was in the high value range, with some samples exceeding the error tolerance from near the upper end of the reference range. When switching to the IFCC method for LDH measurement in canines and felines, each institution should consider whether the reference range and clinical diagnostic values established by the JSCC method are appropriate for continued use.
The present study assessed the economic loss due to treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in Japanese Black calves that were introduced to a backgrounding operation from the age of 3 to 4 months until the age of 10 months. The data collected from a backgrounding operation in Miyazaki, Japan included the records of 2,690 animals entering the farm from 2013 to 2018. The treatment duration was defined as the number of days from the beginning to end of treatment. The cost of treatment was defined as the total cost of treatment during the treatment duration. The average incidence of BRD was 54.6%, and the relative frequency of calves that had BRD once, twice, and three or more times until they left the farm was 64.4%, 26.8%, and 8.8%, respectively (total recorded diagnoses of BRD: 2,494). Among the 2,494 recorded diagnoses, the average and median duration of treatment of BRD was 5.9 days and 3.0 days, respectively. The average and median cost of treatment was 7,767 and 5,600 Japanese yen, respectively. A prolonged duration of treatment and high cost of treatment were associated with BRD relapse, steers, and early stage of production (P<0.05). At the studied farm, the total cost of treatment during the 6-year study period was 19,658,988 yen, and the annual cost was approximately 3 million yen. In summary, the present study showed that BRD had a large economic impact in this backgrounding operation.
The present study aimed to clarify the alkalizing ability of 1.35% isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (ISBS), which did not contain dextrose, compared with that of 1.35% isotonic bicarbonate sodium solution containing 4.03% dextrose (ISBD) in healthy calves. The calves were intravenously administered with 20.7 mL/kg of the solutions for 30 min as the volume required to correct base deficit of 10 mM. ISBS increased the blood pH, HCO3−, and base excess from 7.44 ± 0.02, 29.6 ± 1.9 mM, and 5.3 ± 2.1 mM to 7.49 ± 0.02, 36.9 ± 2.3 mM, and 13.5 ± 2.6 mM respectively (P<0.05). These factors for the ISBD group increased from 7.41 ± 0.02, 29.0 ± 1.1 mM, and 4.5 ± 1.3 mM to 7.43 ± 0.02, 33.5 ± 1.9 mM, and 9.5 ± 1.7 mM (P<0.05), respectively. Furthermore, in the ISBD group, the relative plasma volume and blood glucose level increased while the K+ level decreased, which did not occur in the ISBS group. Therefore, the results revealed that ISBS had better alkalizing ability in calves than ISBD.
Cryptorchidism is defined as the failure of the testis to descend into the scrotal position. Bulls with cryptorchidism have problems in both meat quality and husbandry management; thus, it is greatly important to accurately identify the retained testis and remove it during the early stage. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed under general anesthesia in 34 bulls aged 3–9 months with cryptorchidism. All bulls underwent laparoscopic or incision approach for cryptorchidectomy, and 40 testes were dissected. The detection rates of retained testes were 64.5% in the abdominal cavity and 100% in the subcutaneous inguinal region, and the total detection rate was 72.5%. Furthermore, all cases in this study were suspected to have intra-abdominal cryptorchidism in primary care, but CT revealed that 22.5% of cases had cryptorchidism in the subcutaneous inguinal region. The CT value (mean ± standard deviation) of the retained testes was 20.96 ± 7.54 Hounsfield Unit, and the CT value and size of the retained testes showed a positive weak correlation with bovine age. Therefore, there is the demerit that general anesthesia and a huge device are necessary; nevertheless, CT is suggested to be useful in identifying the location of retained testes and selecting an appropriate surgical approach in bulls with cryptorchidism. Moreover, CT findings suggested that the maturation of the retained testes might depend not on the descending process but on age.
A 12-year-old neutered male Chihuahua was diagnosed with acute brain infarction in the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) was performed to assess the local cerebral blood flow at the time of diagnosis and after 4 and 31 hr. Initially, the right MCA retained blood flow but with a lower cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV; 14.9 cm/sec) than the left MCA (27.9 cm/sec). The TCD vascular resistance variables were higher in the right than in the left MCA. An increase in the CBFV and a decrease in TCD vascular resistance variables were observed, consistent with improvements in neurological symptoms. TCD can be a non-invasive, and easy-to-use modality for bedside monitoring of cerebral edema and infarction.
This study aimed to apply radar technology to a large quadruped animal. We first developed a non-contact respiration measurement system using millimeter-wave array radar for a horse in standing position. Specifically, we measured the respiration of a stationary domestic horse in stables. Simultaneously, we measured the respiration rate using infrared thermography and developed a method for analyzing the radar information while verifying the rate of agreement. Our results suggested that the radar technology detected breathing and accurately measured the respiration of a horse, despite variation in the breathing frequency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a non-contact respiration measurement system using millimeter-wave array radar has been applied to large animals in an upright position, thereby demonstrating its potential application in animal husbandry and welfare.
Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease of birds caused by avian Plasmodium spp. in worldwide scale. Some naïve birds show serious symptoms which can result in death. Surveillance of vectors and parasites are important to understand and control this disease. Although avian malaria has been found in Japan, detailed prevalence and dynamics remained understudied. We aimed to observe annual changes in the abundance of mosquitoes and the prevalence of avian Plasmodium parasites in Japan. Mosquitoes were collected using dry ice traps over a 10-year period, at a fixed research area located in Kanagawa prefecture. Collected mosquitoes were investigated for the species composition, population size and prevalence of avian Plasmodium by PCR. Mosquitoes belonging to 13 species in 7 genera were collected (n=8,965). The dominant species were Aedes (Ae.) albopictus and Culex (Cx.) pipiens group (gr.). Seven avian Plasmodium lineages, all of which were previously known, were detected from Cx. pipiens gr., Ae. albopictus, and Tripteroides bambusa. Three genetic lineages were dominant and were probably transmitted by Cx. pipiens gr. whose could be the primary vector of these parasites. Annual variations in the seasonal prevalence of mosquitoes and avian Plasmodium were revealed for the first time during recent 10 years in Japan. Namely, avian Plasmodium occurrence in the vector population peaked often in June to July and September to October when the density of the vector population was presumably high enough for the transmission of avian Plasmodium upon appearance of infected birds.
Intestinal coccidiosis caused by Eimeria protozoan species is an economically important disease, especially in poultry and cattle. Anti-coccidial drugs commonly used for controlling coccidiosis are toltrazuril (TTZ) and diclazuril (DCZ). In this study, the efficacies of TTZ and DCZ were compared using a murine model, and the effect of these treatments on the induction of acquired resistance was evaluated. Male C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with 1,000 sporulated E. vermiformis oocytes and treated with TTZ or DCZ. The recommended TTZ dose for cattle (15 mg/kg) completely prevented oocyte excretion. But, mice required 5 mg/kg of DCZ, which is five times the recommended dose for cattle, to reduce oocyte excretion. In E. vermiformis re-infection, TTZ (15 mg/kg) and DCZ (5 mg/kg) treatments did not interfere with the development of acquired resistance. Bodyweight gain was significantly higher in the TTZ-treated group than in the control (untreated/infected) group and the DCZ-treated group, and no significant difference in bodyweight gain was observed between the TTZ-treated group and the healthy (uninfected/untreated) group. Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes indicated that the relative populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were reduced in the DCZ-treated and control (untreated/infected) groups, suggesting there was immunosuppression during the infection. However, no reductions in T cell populations were observed in the TTZ-treated group. The results indicated that an optimal anti-coccidial drug is one that can completely break the parasite life cycle in the host animal.
Chemerin is an adipocytokine whose concentration in blood correlates positively with blood pressure (BP). We have recently revealed that acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of chemerin-9, an active fragment of human chemerin, increased systemic BP in normal Wistar rats, suggesting that chemerin is involved in the central nervous control of peripheral BP. After secreted as an inactive form as prochemerin, a mature form of active chemerin is produced through the cleavage of its carboxyl (C)-terminus by proteases. Although the activity of cleaved products of chemerin has been examined in vitro, in vivo effects remained to be elusive. In order to explore them, we performed acute i.c.v. injection of mouse chemerin-9 (mChemerin-9; 148F-156S), mouse chemerin-8 (mChemerin-8; 148F-155F), and mouse chemerin-7 (mChemerin-7; 148F-154A) into Wistar rats, and examined the effects on systemic BP. After chemerin fragment (1–30 nmol/head, i.c.v.) was cumulatively administered, systemic BP was measured by a cannulation method under an isoflurane anesthesia. mChemerin-9 but not mChemerin-8 and -7 induced a pressor response, which was concentration-dependent. In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrated that mChemerin-9 that corresponds to the C-terminal nine amino acids of active mouse chemerin156S increased systemic BP in rats, and also that chemerin fragments showed different effects on systemic BP dependent on how their C-terminus was cleaved.
Eighty strains of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7/H- were analyzed by three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels using whole-genome sequencing data. The partial concordance of SNP types among the different SNP panels was observed on minimum spanning trees reconstructed with SNP data. As for lineage I/II strains, some of the clade 7 strains belonged to one unique SNP type as determined by three panels, suggesting that clade 7 should be divided into at least two genotypes, namely, the unique type and the rest. In addition, clade 8 contained two unique genotypes, which was consistent with the previous prediction. Similarly, for lineage II, clade 12 should be divided into three genotype strains. In contrast, many strains of several clades belonging to lineage I were clustered into the same node on each minimum spanning tree upon testing with the three SNP panels. Previous studies reported that lineage I diverged more recently than lineages I/II and II. Such low diversity in lineage I in this study may have arisen because this lineage has not accumulated SNPs because of its relatively recent divergence. Based on the concordance observed in this study, some of the previously published O157 genotype distribution data were successfully interpreted to clarify the clade distribution, which was well supported by previous literature.
A 3-year-old female Miniature Schnauzer dog with a week-long history of generalized intention tremor and progressive weight loss for several months was admitted. Mild anemia, fever, splenomegaly, aseptic cerebral meningitis and systemic lymph nodes enlargement were examined through erythrogram, ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Mycobacterium bovis was identified via molecular microbiology having the same molecular type as that of isolates from a cattle farm previously identified. However, the dog was raised in a city. The M. bovis had multidrug resistance (MDR)-bearing mutations in both katG and rpoB genes toward first-line antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing an MDR M. bovis infection of a dog in Korea.
Cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy (CVSM), a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression, is a neurological disease characterized by general proprioceptive ataxia and weakness of hindlimbs that tends to develop in young adult Thoroughbred horses. Although male horses seem to be at increased risk for CVSM, the mechanism for the occurrence of sex differences in the prevalence of CVSM is still poorly understood. Hence, we hypothesized that sex differences in the development of cervical spinal cord and spinal canal would affect the development of CVSM. This study aimed to evaluate sex differences in the development of cervical spinal cord and spinal canal in Thoroughbred horses. A total of 29 Thoroughbred horses underwent computed tomographic myelography. Thereafter, the volumes of cervical spinal cord and spinal canal were calculated. Accordingly, male horses had significantly lager cervical spinal cord volume and cervical spinal cord-to-spinal canal volume ratio than those of female horses (P<0.05). Sex differences in the cervical spinal cord-to-spinal canal volume ratio gradually decreased until around 1,400 days of age. Younger male horses have narrower interspace between the cervical spinal cord and spinal canal than younger female horses, suggesting that an imbalanced cervical spinal cord and spinal canal growth is one of the causes of CVSM.
A 5-month-old intact female mixed cat presented with repetitive paraplegia and drainage of pus from the back despite continuous antibiotic medication. Neurologic examination was consistent with below T3-L3 myelopathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a contrast-enhanced mass in the L1-3 spinal canal, and bone fragments in the T13 and L1 spinal canal. Spinal epidural empyema was suspected, and hemilaminectomy was performed for T12-L2 on the right side and T11-12 on the left side. Bone fragments were diagnosed as sequestrum infected with Bacteroides sp. The cat recovered enough to ambulate next day. One month after surgery, there was no deficit in neurological function. This is the first report of spinal epidural empyema concurrent with sequestrum in a cat.
The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-hepcidin effect of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) in Mongolian horses. Twenty-six healthy horses were randomly allocated in to two-groups; one group was treated with a PPS once a week for 4-weeks while another group keeping as placebo. Blood samples at day 0 (D0), before race (BR; day 28) and after race (AR; day 28) were analyzed for serum biochemistry, hepcidin and iron concentrations. Significant reduction of hepcidin was observed at AR in PPS group when compared with BR placebo (P<0.05) and AR placebo (P<0.01). Mean hepcidin concentration difference of D0-BR and BR-AR in PPS was greater than the placebo whereas the iron concentration difference is reduced compared to placebo. Results indicate a novel therapeutic application of PPS as an anti-hepcidin compound to control hepcidin in horses while emphasizing further molecular studies.
Two male cats were presented with penile part of urethra injury due to dog attacks to the perineum and genitalia area. Chronic wound around a remained penile part of urethra due to the dog bite and perineal area was evident due to urine irritation. The buccal mucosa was harvested and subsequently placed on the granulation tissue of the wound to reconstruct the urinary passage. The buccal mucosal graft completely attached to the skin and urethra without any complications. From the follow-up at 3 months, the cats were able to urinate normally and the skin irritation from urine was resolved. In summary, the buccal mucosa is a good graft source and is suitable for the reconstruction of the urinary passage in severe and complicated cases of penile part of urethra injury in male cats.
Changes in the C-reactive protein (CRP) and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGFM) concentrations of uterine lavage fluid were examined in cows given an intrauterine povidone-iodine (PI) infusion. The mean polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) ratios (the ratio of PMN to total cells) and CRP concentration of uterine lavage fluid on the day after the treatment were significantly (P<0.05) greater in the PI infusion group (PMN: 53.0 ± 32.7%, CRP: 50.2 ± 32.3 ng/mL) than in the non-treatment control group (PMN: 7.9 ± 21.9%, CRP: 17.2 ± 5.9 ng/mL), whereas there was no significant difference in the mean PGFM concentration between the two groups. The present findings suggest that the uterine CRP level is a useful biomarker of local uterine inflammation in cows.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious swine disease caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) that results in economic loss to the pig-rearing industry. To study PRRSV infection in wild boars and pigs, we conducted a serological survey in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from 2020 to 2021. Three out of 453 (0.7%) wild boar sera were positive for PRRSV antibodies in a commercial ELISA. However, given that PRRSV RNA was not detected in these three wild boars and the specificity and sensitivity of the test kit, these are considered as false positives. Although seropositive pigs were found in multiple pig farms in the study area, the role of wild boars as a source of PRRS to pig farms appeared to be minimal.
Here, we report details of a new infectious disease in wild-caught Japanese fire-bellied newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster), a Near Threatened species. Skin lesions consisting of numerous masses were found in the animals near Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. The gross appearance of the skin lesions showed blister-, cyst-, and/or tumor-like morphology. Various sizes of skin lesions were observed on their entire body surface. Histologically, spherical basophilic cysts, including numerous spores, were observed in the dermis layer. Ultrastructural analysis indicated the presence of main bodies of flagellated zoospores within the spores. While 18s rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the skin lesions were due to dermocystid infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dermocystid infection in this amphibian in Japan. Further studies are needed to prevent epidemics and to establish diagnostic and treatment methods.
In this study, clinical, parasitological and histopathological findings of thirteen kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) found infected with eyeflukes in Brazil are presented. Parasites detected in the ventral conjunctival fornix were identified as Philophthalmus lachrymosus [mean intensity of infection: 16 (5–36) worms/bird]. Eleven birds (85%) presented signs of systemic disease, such as emaciation, dehydration and depressed consciousness. Conjunctival hyperemia was observed in 22 eyes (85%). Keratitis, corneal ulcers, corneal abscess and chemosis were also detected in some eyes (4–8%). Histopathologic lesions, likely due to the parasite attachment to the conjunctiva, were found in the eyes of one infected bird that died from unrelated causes. Philophthalmosis by P. lachrymosus is here reported as a clinically relevant eye disease in kelp gulls.
A captive male Linnaeus’s two-toed sloth died without any obvious clinical signs. At necropsy, multifocal ulceration at the lumbar and perianal skin, mitral valve vegetation, and multifocal hemorrhage in the leptomeninges were observed. Histopathologically, suppurative meningo-ventriculitis, dermatitis, and endocarditis characterized by severe neutrophilic infiltration were observed. Gram-positive cocci arranged in pairs or chains were present in these inflammatory lesions. Streptococcus agalactiae gene was detected in the skin, heart, and brain tissues by PCR and sequence analysis. These findings may indicate that S. agalactiae primarily infected the skin and then caused septicemia resulting in endocarditis and meningo-ventriculitis. The present case suggests that S. agalactiae infection can cause severe meningo-ventriculitis in two-toed sloth without any specific clinical signs.