The effect of the alternative feeding of defibration-, expanding- and moistening- treated Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) (DEMB) silage, i.e. 41 % DEMB and 59 % sweet potato shochu distillery byproduct on a fresh weight basis with 10% polished rice bran (DEMB silage) on the milk production of lactating goats was studied. A switch-back trial using two Nubian goats was conducted to compare the milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid composition in the milk fat between the animals fed lucerne hay cubes only (control) and those fed lucerne hay cubes with 30% DEMB silage (in a TDN basis)(experimental diet) based on the previous findings that the fermentative quality, palatability and nutritive value of the silage were the most superior. Although the digestible crude protein intake per metabolic body size of goats fed the experimental diet was significantly higher than that of the control (P<0.01), there were no significant differences in dry matter, TDN, NDF and ADF intake per metabolic body size between treatments during the experiments. Milk yield and milk composition were not significantly different between treatments during the experiments, while unsaturated fatty acids tended to increase in the milk fat of the animals fed the experimental diet compared with the control. In particular, the milk of the former goats had significantly higher oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid content than the latter (P<0.05). It was concluded that the milk production of lactating goats was not affected by substituting the DEMB silage for ordinary components but that unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat were increased by the diet, indicating that it may produce value-added milk.
The objective of this study was to obtain basic information on the effective use of geese for sustainable management of vegetation in orchards . From July to October in 2007 (69 days in total), an experiment was conducted to determine the influence of 12 free-ranging geese (average body weight (BW), 2.9 kg; age, 4 months) on weed control in an orchard of Japanese pears (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai, 19a). The dominant species in the Japanese pear orchard were grass weeds (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var. crus-galli and Digitaria adscendens (H.B.K) Henr.). At the end of the grazing period, the coverage of grass weeds and herbage mass were significantly smaller in the free-ranging plot than in the control plot (a closed area, 1a)(P<0.05). The geese more frequently grazed on grass weeds than on other plant species. In addition, they grazed on epiphytic mosses growing on the pear trees; thus, the coverage of these mosses was significantly less in the free-ranging plot than that in the control plot (P<0.05). At the end of free-ranging period, the average BW was 4.0 kg, and the BW gain during the experimental period was 1.1 kg. These results indicated that the use of free-ranging geese for weed control in the orchard was effective.
The aim of this study was to improve textural properties of chicken meat loaf which was prepared to be available for the elderly people. Soft chicken meat loaf (SCL) was composed of chicken meat, egg whites and some vegetables, which results in a full balanced and nutritious food product. The best value of the breaking strength was obtained when the meat was filtered by a strainer and 1% gelatin was mixed. The breaking strength values of the samples filtered by a strainer in both groups (1% and 2% gelatin) were reduced by a rate of 50% when compared to non-filtered samples. Moreover, the breaking strength of the filtered samples was significantly less than that of the samples of ordinary soft food. The textural and cohesiveness values in meat loaf containing 1% gelatin were superior to that values in the ordinary soft food samples. A participant (female, 88 years-old) could swallow it without any difficulty, despite the fact that she was routinely chewing with her own gums and fed by a feeding tube. SCLs with 1% gelatin filtered through a strainer obtained the best values in rheological and sensory assessments. The present data showed that the chicken meat loaf is tender smooth, easy to swallow and is accepted to humans with dysphagia (3rd grade of soft food local classification table).
Authors evaluated a new beef production system using the rearing by year-round outdoor grazing on improved pastures and fattening by self-sufficient feed of primarily corn silage for Japanese black (JB) steers born in the same bull pedigree. JB steers were grazed outdoors in a year-round on Guineagrass (summer-autumn) and Italian ryegrass (winter-spring) pastures until they reached 539.1±15.3 kg of body weight (BW). The steers were then fed indoors, mainly with corn silage supplemented with commercial formula feed, until they weighed about 714.7±4.1 kg of BW. Total amount of commercial formula feed (wet basis) were 1,115.8±68.2 kg/head (daily: 6.1±0.1 kg/head) during the fattening (F) period, and ratio of corn silage was 31.1±1.5% (dry basis). Daily weight gain (DWG) of the JB steers was 0.95±0.02 kg/day during the F period. In plasma composition during grazing and F periods, alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, retinol, β-carotene and α-tocopherol contents decreased (P<0.05 or 0.01) during the F period from grazing period. After slaughter, the carcasses of the JB steers were graded variably as A-3 (n=1), A-2 (n=3) and B-2 (n=3). Shear-force value of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle was 2.2±0.1 kg. Lipid content of the LT muscle was 16.3±1.3%, while type I muscle fiber composition was 30.1±2.7%. Our results indicated that JB steers reared by year-round outdoors on improved pastures showed 0.95 kg/day of DWG fed by corn silage of 30% in dry basis with concentrates during F period. However, there were variations in vital reactions, in particular meat grade, as well as in meat quality, as determined by carcass grading of JB steers produced under the present new feeding system.
The bovine endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor 1(EDG1) gene is a candidate gene for marbling score. An earlier study showed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP: +166A/G) of EDG1 was associated with marbling score in Japanese Black population of Oita prefecture and G allele had a positive additive genetic effect on marbling score . In this study, the association of the SNP with the predicted breeding values of carcass traits was analyzed by using Japanese Black sires and dams in Saga prefecture. The relationship between the SNP and the carcass traits of Japanese Black steers of Itoharusakae was also studied. Genotyping 33 sires and dams for the SNP revealed 14 animals homozygous for A allele, 14 animals heterozygous for G allele and A allele, and 5 animals homozygous for G allele. Statistically significant differences were detected in the predicted breeding values for beef marbling standard (P<0.01) and rib eye area (P<0.05). The predicted breeding value for beef marbling standard was significantly higher in the GG homozygote. Genotyping 229 steers revealed 100 animals homozygous for A allele, 129 animals heterozygous for G allele and A allele. No statistically significant differences were detected in the all carcass traits of the Itoharusakae's steers.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of soft meat loaves developed for elderly people who have debility in biting and chewing mat products. Meat loaves were made of beef, pork (1.5:1), egg and onion. Other additives such as olive oil, starch, salt, ginger extract and gelatin were added to improve the flavor and textural properties of this product. Filtration by a strainer and addition of gelatin drastically reduced the breaking strength of the meat loaves and significantly decreased the adhesiveness. Moreover, meat loaves showed a good cohesiveness equal to that of ordinary soft food. Data suggests that the newly developed product was smooth and extremely softened by the means of gelatin and filtration treatments when compared to ordinary soft food. The video-fluorographic profiles demonstrated that the participant (woman 75 years-old) who had debility in eating food was chewing and swallowed meat loaf normally without any obstacles. Four people were also participated in meat loaf panel where the average age of the participants was 86 years. All participants positively brought forward their gratification on the product as they found it tasty, soft and elasticized. Three participants accepted the product and expressed their satisfaction at other quality traits such as tongue sensation, ability of chewing and crumbling the product. However, one person could not give valid verdict of the quality traits because he had Alzheimer disease.