Influence of autumn turmeric or curcumin feeding on the color tone of egg yolk of laying hens was investigated. The egg weight, egg yolk weight, egg albumen weight and egg shell weight showed no difference between the feeding period and the control period. The autumn turmeric was produced and prepared for feeding at field science center of University of the Ryukyus. The curcumin in this study was provided by commercial company. In the period of autumn turmeric feeding, absorbance (430nm) of extract liquid of egg yolk and value of yolk color fun was higher than the control period (p<0.05). In the experiment of curcumin feeding, all measurements of egg showed no difference between the feeding period and the control period. In any feeding period, curcumin in the egg yolk was not detected. The result of this study suggested the feeding of autumn turmeric to laying hens improved the color tone of egg yolk.
Since Kyushu is the base of beef cattle industry in Japan, livestock wastes needs to be treated effectively as an organic fertilizer replacing inorganic or chemical fertilizers in forage production. However, little is known about the differences in mineralization characteristics and fertilizing efficiency between farmyard manures derived from cattle with different feeding systems. Thus, effects of farmyard manures derived from fattening beef cattle with co-digestion substrates of sawdust (abbreviated as F+SM) and breeding beef cattle under the feeding of sawdust (B+SM) or grazing on bahiagrass with the substrate of sawdust (B+BSM) or rhodesgrass (B+BRM) were examined for herbage yield, nitrogen content and soil chemical properties in tropical colored guineagrass. Even though the F+SM had lowest total nitrogen (TN) content with highest carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, herbage dry matter yield (DMY), crude protein (CP) content and chlorophyll content in colored guineagrass were highest in the F+SM, on the contrary to the B+BRM which had highest TN content with lowest C/N ratio, leading to the lowest herbage DMY and CP content. Nitrogen mineralization characteristics of farmyard manure determined by an incubation method showed the highest efficiency from F+SM, followed by B+BSM, B+SM and lowest from B+BRM, which lead to an resolution for the contradiction between chemical properties of farmyard manure and the grass growth. Soil chemical properties such as pH and TN content did not vary so much and were hardly correlated with these herbage yield and TN content. It is proposed that the characteristics and fertilizing efficiency of beef cattle farmyard manures should be variable depending on beef cattle feeding systems and co-digestion substrates, and the F+SM had highest fertilizing efficiency on the grass growth among farmyard manures examined.
We investigated the effects of supplementation of rice bran (RB) or calcium soap fatty acid (CSFA) derived from embryo buds of rice on meat production, the physico-chemical characteristics, and sensory evaluation in Japanese Black steers during the later fattening period. For the first and second half fattening periods, concentrates and roughage were given to 11 Japanese Black steers at 9 months of age for 6 months. After 16 months of age, each steer was allocated to one of the following three treatments: concentrates only for second half fattening period (4 animals: control), 8.0% replacement of concentrates with RB on a fresh matter basis (3 animals: RB), and 1.5% replacement of concentrates with CSFA (4 animals: CSFA). Then they were fed until 28 months of age. No significant difference was found among treatments in feed intake or meat production (growth, carcass traits, etc.). The USFA and MUFA concentrations in beef fat of RB and CSFA groups tended to be higher than those in the control group (P<0.1), but the fat melting point tended to be lower in supplementary treatment groups (P<0.1). Furthermore, the CSFA beef had better flavor and aroma than the control beef did, indicating higher overall quality of the former type of beef. In conclusion, neither supplementation of RB nor CSFA for Japanese Black steers affected meat production. However, these supplements were apt to increase USFA and MUFA concentrations in beef. CSFA supplementation especially engendered higher meat quality.
Selection responses by deterministic simulation were compared among selection models which had different source of information: SCD (stearoyl-CoA desaturase) genotypes, phenotypic values of an individual and relatives. Selection response per a generation or a year was computed with a framework of selection index. A target trait of the simulated selection was oleic acid (C18:1) percentage of longissimus thoracis muscle of beef cattle, and genetic parameters of the trait was taken from literatures. The highest selection response was obtained in a combined selection model of phenotypes of half sib and progeny. The other phenotypic selection models also showed higher selection responses than selection models with gene information. A combined selection model with phenotypes and genotypes of parents and half sibs of them showed higher selection response than the other selection models with gene information. Whereas, in terms of selection response per a year, the combined selection model with phenotypes of half sib and progeny showed lower ranking among the selection models due to longer generation interval. The selection model with phenotypes and genotypes of parents and half sibs of them showed the highest selection response among the selection models because it had shorter generation interval. Due to moderate heritability of the oleic acid percentage, phenotypic selection models had higher selection response per a generation, however, the advantage diminished due to longer generation interval. Thus the advantage of a selection model with gene information seems to be realized when it has modest selection response and shorter generation interval.