To obtain guidelines to establish more exact and objective sensory tests for Japanese Black beef by clarifying factors
affecting its ''tastiness'', the relation between sensory evaluation and physico-chemical characteristics of six rib loin meat
samples from heifers and steers averaging 29.4 months of age (meat quality grade, 4; BMS, 6–7) were assessed by 24 meat
traders as panelists. Kendall’s coefficients of concordance for evaluation of meat in appearance and its sensory evaluation
among panelists were significant (P < 0.01), but the evaluations were not necessarily in agreement, meaning that it was difficult
to predict the latter evaluation from the former one. Results show that the crude fat content of the meat, unsaturated
fatty acid concentration, fat melting point, and monounsaturated fatty acid composition of subcutaneous lipids of the cattle
complexly influenced the sensory evaluation. Therefore, results suggest that the evaluation based on physico-chemical
characteristics, rather than evaluation of meat appearance, might be more indicative of sensory characteristics. Nevertheless,
it was impossible to identify some primary physico-chemical characteristics related to sensory evaluation in beef
samples with little difference in the meat quality grade.
In this study, reduced-pressure dried food residue (RDFR) was prepared by heat-drying food waste collected from
restaurants and cafeterias of schools, hospitals and offices in Shibushi, Kagoshima, Japan. The conditions for the heat-drying
process were 72 °C for 6 h under reduced-pressure (15 kPa absolute). RDFR was evaluated as a feed or feed ingredient
for broiler chickens and laying hens using control groups on normal feeds. In the first experiment, RDFR was fed as 5 or
10% of a corn-soybean meal-based diet to 14-d-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) for 16 d, and this improved growth
performance and increased muscle weight. The plasma α-tocopherol concentration also significantly increased (P < 0.05).
In the second experiment, RDFR was mixed with a commercial diet (the mixing ratios were 7.5 and 15 parts RDFR to 100
parts commercial diet by weight) and fed to 169-d-old laying hens (white leghorn) for 54 d. Egg production and egg quality
were unchanged but the α-tocopherol content in the egg yolk tended to increase for both the 7.5 and 15-RDFR groups,
whereas cholesterol content significantly decreased in the 15-RDFR group (P < 0.05). Egg yolk color was significantly
lighter in the 15-RDFR group (P < 0.05). From these results, RDFR is shown to be suitable as a feed or feed ingredient for
chickens. The highest feeding levels recommended are up to 10% for broiler chickens and 13% for laying hens.
Changes in dry matter (DM) yield , in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD), crude protein (CP) and hydrogen cyanide potential (HCNp) were investigated with growth stages in four different varieties of Sorghum (cv. Sanjaku sorgo (Gs), High sugar sorgo (Fs), BMR sweet (Bs) and Rich sudan (Ss)), in addition with topdressing effects on these yield and quality. Basal fertilizer was applied at 100 kg N/ha in non-topdressing (NT) plot, in addition with top-dressed at 50 kg N/ha in the 6th leaf stage in topdressing (T) plot. Plants were harvested every 2 weeks after germination (WAG). DM yield, IVDMD, digestible DM yield, CP and HCNp at 12 WAG were ranged in 8.9-15.6 t/ha, 40.0-56.4%, 4.1-8.0 t/ha, 3.9-5.0% and 11.0-30.4 ppm, respectively. Digestible DM yields increased up to 12 WAG in Gs and Fs, while they remained at the same level after 8 WAG in Bs and Ss. HCNp level decreased with maturity to reach the safe level for animal feeding after 4-6 WAG when plant height approached 1 m. Topdressing showed a tendency to increase in DM yield through four varieties. However, the harvest should retard to three weeks after topdressing to secure the safe level of HCNp.
The effect of segregation in a cowshed on horizontal transmission of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) was investigated. The experiments were conducted in a winter season (WE), when blood sucking insects such as tabanid flies disappear, and in a summer season (SE), when the insects appear. A total of 13 BLV-negative steers, which were confirmed to be serologically free of BLV, were allocated to 2 treatments, i.e. adjacent group (A) and 5 m segregated group (S) in each season experiment. The BLV-negative steers were reared for 14 (SE) -17 (WE) weeks in the conventional feeding manner with inspection by passive hemagglutination (PHA method) for BLV antibody at 2-4 week intervals. In both WE and SE, there were no clinical signs of Enzootic Bovine Leukemia in any steers. Although 2 of the 4 steers of A treatment proved seropositive and positive by 13 weeks after beginning of the WE, no BLV infection was observed in animals of S treatment. The serum antibody of one of those 2 seroconverted steers disappeared afterwards. In contrast, 2 of the 3 steers of S treatment proved seropositive and positive by 8 weeks after beginning of the SE, though no BLV infection was found in the animals of A treatment. The serum antibody of those 2 seroconverted steers disappeared afterwards. However, one of 2 animals turned out seroconverted again. From these results, it is suggested that there are other processes of BLV transmission besides vertical transmission (placenta or colostrum), artificial fluid contamination (use of shared tools) and horizontal transmission (blood sucking insects). Therefore, it is shown that the perfect prevention of BLV transmission is difficult even though 5 m segregation is performed in a cowshed.
In the alpine grazing rangeland of the Tibetan Plateau, where three major rivers originate in China, four sites (Plot I to IV, 50 m × 50 m each) in 2011, and ten sites (Plot 1 to 10, 20 m × 20 m each) in 2012 in the habitats of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) were selected in order to investigate the relationship between the highly varied individual density of pleateau pikas and vegetation. The individual density was roughly estimated by counting the active burrow openings with a filling-burrow opening method. A vegetation survey was conducted with one or both quadrat and line transect methods in those plots. The active burrow opening density was significantly correlated with the burrow opening density (r = 0.996, P < 0.01). The active opening density differed significantly among the plots (P < 0.001), and that in Plot I was smallest (4/2,500 m2/day). The density in Plot IV (305/2,500 m2/day) was greatest in 2011, and ranged from zeroes in Plots 1, 2 and 3 to 63/400 m2/day in Plot 10 in 2012. Indices for floristic diversity in Plot I were highest and in Plot II were lowest in 2011, and in Plot 3 were highest and in Plot 4 were lowest in 2012. Generalized liner model analyses showed that the burrow opening density was affected positively by vegetation cover and number of plant species, and negatively by aboveground biomass and plant height, and that the active burrow opening density was affected positively by vegetation cover and number of plant species, and negatively by plant height. These results suggested that plateau pikas would select sites with comparatively higher vegetation cover as their habitats from sites with lower plant height and lower vegetation cover where domestic animals have grazed.
Three triploid Miscanthus hybrids were found in Kushima, Japan, by a first screening of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus plants by using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dilactate dye flow cytometry (DAPI-FCM). The ploidy levels of the three triploid hybrids were confirmed by a second screening using propidium iodide dye flow cytometry (PI-FCM). It was possible that we might have missed a few triploid hybrids in the first screening because of a weak correlation of relative estimated DNA contents between PIFCM and DAPI-FCM. Therefore, to get the conclusive evidence of three accessions newly discovered being triploid among some Miscanthus spp., we conducted a comparison of the relative DNA contents estimated with AT-selective DAPI dye and intercalary PI dye in diploid (2x) M. sinensis and tetraploid (4x) M. sacchariflorus and their triploid (3x) hybrids. A strong linear correlation was observed between both FCM analyses. The slope of the regression line was 1.15. This result shows the high reliability of the findings of our previous study on Miscanthus accessions.