The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dietary cation anion difference （DCAD） roughage （Italian ryegrass and corn silage） with elevated chloride content on mineral metabolism in pregnant cows. Italian ryegrass and corn grown at 2 locations was fertilized with either KCl and NH4Cl （low- DCAD group） or K2SO4 and （NH4）2SO4 （high-DCAD group）. The DCAD of Italian ryegrass and corn silage were 268.6, 46.7 mEq/kgDM in low-DCAD group and 497.0, 156.7 mEq/kgDM in high-DCAD group, respectively. The DCAD of experimental TMR using these roughages were 240.8 mEq/kgDM in low-DACD group and 309.8 mEq/kgDM in high-DCAD group. Eight pregnant cows were used to this experiment from 3 weeks before expected calving date to 3 days after parturition. There was no significant difference in TMR intake during experimental period. Urinary pH in low-DACD group before parturition was significantly lower than that in high-DCAD group. Urinary Ca and Cl excretion in low-DACD group before parturition was significantly higher than that in high-DCAD group. The plasma Ca concentration at calving day in the low-DCAD group was tended to be （P<0.10） higher than that in the high-DCAD group.
The effect of feeding milled brown rice on behavior and meat productivity of forest grazing pigs was investigated. An experiment was conducted in a woodland （30 a） of Kagoshima University Forest at Kagoshima-shi, Japan, from June to November, 2014. Eight pigs （average body weight, 44 kg; age, 19 weeks） were grazed using electric fence to separate groups, with each group comprising 4 pigs （1 hog and 3 gilts）. They were assigned to 2 treatments: 1） the control group was provided with commercial diet （CP 14-15％, TDN 77-78％）; and 2） the experimental group was given a mixed diet （commercial diet and milled brown rice: CP 9-13％, TDN 79-80％）. The percentages of brown rice to total diet at the first and the last fattening stages （19-29 w and 30-39 w） were 30％ and 70％, respectively. The amount of feed offered was 100％ of the TDN requirement for maintenance and growth according to the Japanese Feeding Standard for Swine （2013）. Feeding behavior was significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control group at 22 weeks of age （P＜0.05）. In contrast, rooting behavior of the experimental group was higher than the control group （P＜0.05）. The final body weight was 107 kg for the control group and 104 kg for the experimental group at 39 weeks of age. The feed conversion ratios of the control and experimental groups during the experimental period were 5.2 and 5.3, respectively. The dressing percentage and rib-eye thickness were significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control group （P＜0.05）. None of the other traits, such as carcass weight, rib thickness, and back fat thickness, were significantly different between the two groups. As for fatty acid composition of back fat, the percentage of oleic acid was higher in the experimental group than in the control group （P＜0.05）.
These results indicated that small-scale swine production in the woodland might be feasible in combination with milled brown rice, although it is necessary to study the appropriate feeding method of milled brown rice at the first fattening stage.
Sensory evaluation and physical and chemical analyses were performed using loin meats of Kagoshima Berkshire （BB） pigs, domestic three-way cross（ LWD） pigs, and Canadian-imported LWD（ LWDc） pigs. We compared the results of physical and chemical analyses and their correlations with the results of the sensory evaluation. Both BB and LWD pig meat that received a high evaluation score for “favorite scent” in the sensory evaluation was characterized by many odorous substances. BB pig meat received high evaluation scores for “ease of shearing” and “ease of chewing” in the sensory evaluation. BB pig meat had higher water-holding capacity than LWDc pig meats. The relative concentrations of free glutamic acid, which produces umami taste, and those of threonine, proline, and alanine, all of which produce sweet taste, were significantly high in BB pig meat. In the fatty acid composition of backfat, the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was low in BB pig meat. BB pig meat obtained higher score of overall sensory evaluation than LWD and LWDc pig meats. These results demonstrate that BB pig meat is soft and juicy, rich in taste-related amino acids, and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids and has many odorous substances and high water-holding capacity.
This study demonstrates the evaluation of the drying rate of different plant parts (leaf blade and stem) under the artificial-drying and the drying rate in whole plants under the sun-drying process using the newly-bred tetraploid ruzigrass (Urochloa ruziziensis: TR) and rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana: CG). For morphological traits, TR had significantly thicker stems, wider leaf blades, and shorter leaf blades compared to CG (P <0.001). Both grass species exhibited a greater stem diameter (P <0.05), leaf blade width (P <0.001) and leaf blade length (P <0.001) after 2nd cutting compared to the 1st cutting. CG showed a higher rate of leaf parts than TR in the 1st and 2nd cutting, though the differences were not significant. The stem part of both grasses took longer to dry than the leaf part in the 1st and 2nd cutting. Addionally, the differences between TR and CG in the stem parts are smaller than that of the leaf parts. Coefficient analyses revealed that the thinner and longer leaf part, the quicker the drying rate. Additionally, the drying rate was not influenced by fresh matter yield or the ratio of leaf parts but by the temperature in the daytime.