Organizational theory contains many insights that can further organizationalstudies in Sociology. The paper makes four points. First, organizationaltheory is relatively new and very interdisciplinary. Many disciplines havecontributed to its development and not just Sociology. It is very open to different perspectives.Second, initially the focus was on organizational structures and not labor relations. Other subfields in sociology, e.g., Marxist theory, focused on the latter. Organizational theory can be traced to Weber’s essays on bureaucracy, and it focused on different forms that organizations can take and under what conditions different forms are more or less effective. Third, organizational theory has not been kind to managers and administrators, portraying them as boundedly rational, conspiratorial, or self-serving. Unfortunately, this deflected attention from the problems that they confront and must solve on a day-to-day basis. Fourth, organizational theory focuses more on the context of strategic decision-making than on the choices that managers make. The structure within the organization as well as the environment external to the organizations limit what managers can do. Ecological and neo-institutional theories made the greatest contribution here but approached the study of organizational behavior from very different perspectives. The talk then described two new developments in the field, classification theory, which is an offshoot of ecological theory, and inhabited institutionalism, which is an offshoot of neo-institutional theory, to show that the field is still growing and developing new insights. The paper concludes by encouraging researchers to continue to search for new explanationsto organizational phenomena focusing on both inside and outside of the organization.（Joseph Galaskiewicz）
This study considers the meaning of nurture according to the faith of foster parents who believe in the Tenrikyo religion. There have been few studies conducted of foster parents of the Tenrikyo faith, a gap this study aims to fill. This study contributes new findings to the study of the relationship between faith/religion and social welfare.
Analysis of the interview data yielded the following clarification. The reason the participants became foster parents was the “human assistance orientation” of the Tenrikyo faith. As concerns the position of foster parents, both “relational unlimitedness” and “time unlimitedness” were generated from their religious belief. Foster parents of the Tenrikyo faith understand their relationship with their foster children in terms of their religious belief. This understanding is termed “religious context” in this study.
This “religious context” will be an important framework for future foster parent studies and welfare studies. In addition, as the number of foster parents following the Tenrikyo faith increases, this framework will become practically important for understanding foster parents.
There is an urgent need to promote social inclusion of people with mentaldisabilities in the community in Japan. This study explored the expansion of support activities for people with mental disabilities within the community and how support users perceived these activities. A case study was conducted on employment support activities in Tama New Town, Tokyo. Based on participant observation, a questionnaire survey, and interviews with support users and staff members of a support organization, the results obtained were as follows: Employment support activities have expanded, enabling support users to choose the type of activity they want and to work in many parts of New Town.
For example, there is an employment support office in the shopping area of a housing complex. This office plays an important role in facilitating not only the interactions among the residents of the housing complex but also the exchanges between these residents and support users. Moreover, users find opportunities for participating in the community through selling and circle activities. Support users perceived that such employment support activities enabled them to receive job training for future employment, gain understanding about their mental and physical condition, and also help in connecting with other support users. The interaction at the places of employment support activities brings the possibilities of social recognition to support users and plays a crucial role inlinking support users with the community.
Prior research has shown that having had family members or friends in need of blood motivates people to donate blood. However, few studies have focused on people who donate blood even though they do not know anyone who needs blood. This study aims to fill this gap by examining the motives of people who repeatedly donate blood although they do not know anyone in need of blood.
During the interviews, interviewees described their first-time motives for donation and their motives for repeatedly donating blood in common as: a desire to be of help to people in need, encouragement from family members or friends who are blood donors themselves or work at medical institutions, and the expectation that they or their family members would receive blood in the future.
Also, some donors stated that they repeatedly donate blood to maintain good health. There were interviewees who specified “no particular reason” or mere curiosity as their motive for their initial donation. However, these interviewees’ motives for repeatedly donating blood changed to motives such as a desire to help people in need and maintain good health. In order to increase the number of repeated blood donors, even if they have no particular reasons to donate, it is important to provide people with opportunities to participate in blood donation.
Moreover, because most of the interviewees first donated blood when theywere under 24 years old, targeting people under 24 is important.
The purpose of this article is to overview the development of anti-AIDS measures aimed gay men and men who have sex with men （MSM）, and to clarify what kind of AIDS prevention has been developed for them in Japan. We focus more specially on the preventive system based on collaboration between researchers - mainly epidemiologists - and gay NGOs, and clarify the development of the preventive system, based on the case of activities in Fukuoka.
Anti-AIDS measures by epidemiologists initially require ‘gayness’ as an important parameter to approach this high-risk group which is difficult to get in contact with, therefore a collaborative system has been established and developed with gay NGOs in response to this need （‘passive collaboration’）. However, the activities of gay NGOs under the collaborative system imply a process of acquiring ‘gayness’ which is different from the one expected by epidemiologists, hence the collaborative system becomes more refined（ ‘active collaboration’）.
By acquiring ‘gayness’ thanks to this collaborative system, the gay NGO -Love Act Fukuoka（ LAF） - has experienced conflict with the anti-AIDS measures promoted by epidemiologists and decided to carry out activities independently from epidemiologists. This means that a gay NGO that acts independently is an unintended consequence of ‘gayness’ needed by epidemiologists for anti-AIDS measures.
This study investigates the factors of support for striker eligibility criteria（ SEC）for the social assistance program（ SAP） in Japan with a focus on the effects of perceptions of welfare abuse. While the SAP is often criticized for its underuse in Japan, the Japanese citizens support the implementation of SEC for the SAP.
Previous studies have found that social and geographical proximities to welfare recipients as well as media use affect the support for SAP; however, these studies have not explained the mechanism through which these factors impact the support. Based on this viewpoint, we test the validity of the assumed mechanismthat proximity and media use affect the perceptions of welfare abuse, which in turn determines the support for SEC for the SAP. We observed the following results by using the multilevel structural equation modeling with Bayesian estimation: 1） social proximity （social network） to the welfare recipient reduces the perception of welfare abuse, whereas geographical proximity strengthens it. 2） Reading the newspaper reduces the perception of welfare abuse, whereas watching television and using the internet do not affect it. 3） Perceptions of welfare abuse strengthen the support for SEC for the SAP even after controlling the effects of self-interest. These results support the validity of our model.
In recent years, the Japanese government has promoted a care-centered society with a focus on collaboration of care between the residents to strengthenties within the community and to overcome an inflexible, compartmentalized public administration. One example is known as Toyama-Style day care service.
This reference provides care to people with or without handicaps, regardless of age, in a home-like facility. However, under government promotion, collaboration through care does not fully acknowledge conflicts within this relationship style.
In this paper, I examine the place for co-living of care between care-workers and uncooperative residents, using the care practices found at Toyama-Style day care service Day Care Center Nigiyaka as an example. This research analyzes the actuality of co-living, in which a quarrel as performed in certain conditions is inevitable for the residents to accept having been excluded from the existing care system. Certainly, a quarrel is an intense expression of a relationship, but through forming a place of trust with other people over a long time, care-workers are better able to sustain the relations of care. Finally, to enhance the promotion of care-centered society, I suggest the necessity of imagining a long-term collective work mechanism which includes quarrel in relationships.
Public attitudes toward the welfare state are often measured one-dimensionally. The assumption of one-dimensionality predicts that supporters of a certain welfare state program are more in favor of all other programs. However, some studies suggest that attitudes toward the welfare state are multidimensional. That is, conflicts over certain welfare state programs may be qualitatively different from conflicts over other programs. Using ISSP data, this article examines the structure and determinants of welfare state attitudes in Japan. The purpose is to accurately represent the structure of attitudes and to reveal whether there are cross-program differences in the welfare state conflict.
Categorical confirmatory factor analysis shows that attitudes are not completely one-dimensional and that cross-program differences need to be considered. Structural equation modeling results indicate that conflicts over the policies on illness and old age are qualitatively different from conflicts over the ones on unemployment and poverty. For example, while the effect of equivalent income is not statistically significant in the dimension of illness and old age, equivalent income has a significant negative effect in the dimension of unemployment and poverty. People with lower incomes are more in favor of the policies on unemployment and poverty instead of the ones on illness and old age. In this way, the findings help understanding of why individuals support the welfare state.