Journal of Welfare Sociology
Online ISSN : 2186-6562
Print ISSN : 1349-3337
Current issue
Displaying 1-26 of 26 articles from this issue
  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 7-12
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • A description through thelife-history of a resident
    Yukiko ARARAGI
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 13-33
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     This article describes the history of Hansen’s Disease sanitaria in postwar Japan

    through the life-history of Toshio Nakaishi, who worked as one of the leaders

    of the Residents’ Association of the National Sanatorium Oshima Seishō-en,

    on Oshima Island in Kagawa. The data consists of life-story narratives, in particular

    the essays published in ‘Seishō,’ the sanatorium literary journal, and Nakaishi’s

    notebook given to me by Nakaishi’s guardian after he passed away.

     In 1944, at the end of World War II, Nakaishi entered the sanatorium at the

    age 17, and passed away in 2001 at the age of 74. His life is examined as four

    separate periods: the period during which he and his friends formed the ‘Shisaku-

    kai,’ a non-religious group; the period during which he was active in the

    residents’ campaign against the new Leprosy Prevention Law, the period in

    which Nakaishi worked as the chairperson of the Residents’ Association of

    Seishō-en and the secretary general of the National Council of Sanitarium Patients

    during ‘turning points’ in the sanitaria system; and the period of the later

    days of his life, highlighted by the abolishment of the Leprosy Prevention Law

    and a lawsuit.

     As the result of this analysis, the following points became clear. The young

    people devoted to literary art led the Residents’ Association, confronting the

    problem of subsidies for residents, returning labor to staff, and other issues,

    during a ‘turning point’ in sanatoria history. In spite of Nakaishi’s efforts, the

    residents felt distrust and indifference toward the Residents’ Association. Nakaishi,

    however, approved of acting while maintaining the ideals of the early Resiabstract

    dents’ Association. Nevertheless, he witnessed again the disruption of the

    Seishō-en community during the lawsuit and after its decision in his final days.

     This article is also the result of conversations between Nakaishi and the author.

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  • From the Documents of a Women’s Protection Facility
    Satomi MARUYAMA
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 35-55
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This paper examines changes in W omen’s Protection Services based on

    the Anti-Prostitution Act and the gender norms found therein, focusing not

    on the law itself but on its implementation from the documents of Ikuno

    Gakuen, a Women’s Protection Facility. Based on the records of 1520 cases

    from 1949 to 1997, I show the changes in the residents of Ikuno Gakuen

    from four periods: Before the enforcement of the Anti-Prostitution

    Act, after the enforcement of the Act, after the issuance of the “45 Notification,”

    and after the reduction of government subsidies. In addition, I examined

    the gender norms found in the format of the case records and in

    the case records of two of the residents. The following three points became

    apparent: First, in the period before the enactment of the Anti-Prostitution

    Act, the residents were of a higher class than in other periods; second,

    while the difficulties faced by the residents such as prostitution, violence,

    poverty and disability have shown little change throughout the 51

    years, the focus has changed with the times, as the enactment of the Anti-

    Prostitution Law led to a persistent focus on prostitution. Third, even

    though the Women’s Protection Services relied on the discriminatory Anti-

    Prostitution Act, which protected women within marriage and punished

    women outside of marriage, when we focus on the implementation of the

    law, a critical view of the gender norms contained in the law and the flexibility

    in their practices can be seen without being bound by the law. Such

    a study, focusing on the implementation of the law, will contribute to the

    discussion on the review of the current Women’s Protection Services and

    Anti-Prostitution Act.

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  • Narrative of postwar welfare
    Yasuko MUGIKURA
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 57-82
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Narratives about people in coma and their families appear in a variety of contexts,

    including stories of family recovery, institutional inadequacy, and technological

    innovation in medicine. If we consider narrative as a manifestation of

    the social consciousness that forms the system, the legal system to support the

    lives of people in coma and their families is still far from sufficient.

     There is a deep consciousness that people in coma disorder think that they

    “do not know anything” and consider approaches to themselves as meaningless.

    This consciousness manifests itself as a threat to their lives and dignity.

     Resisting against such threats are the practice of those who are “with” the

    person who is in coma and the narratives. From the practices of people such as

    family members, nurses, and neurosurgeons and their narratives, we can see

    that the continuous practice of eliciting even the slightest reaction and maintaining

    physical health is changing the very existence of “plant humans.” It can

    be said that the system is created from the practice, and also the new life of the

    person in coma. Narrative is a reflexive practice that is not only the “appearance”

    of the social consciousness that forms the institution, but also the “motive”

    that forms the institution.

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  • Shinya TATEIWA
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 83-102
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     I state the urgency of the need for an archive concerning the body and

    society, and the accumulation of research conducted in the course of creating

    such an archive. I illustrate several points that should be kept in

    mind in this undertaking. I assert that this work should also concern itself,

    for example, with the lives of people in national sanatoria in Japan going

    forward.

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  • Naoyuki KIRIHARA
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 105-128
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     Revision of the Mental Health Act of 1987 has been framed as a law revision

    in consideration of human rights, caused by international criticisms to Japanese

    mental health system with the case of Utsunomiya Hospital as a trigger. Previous

    studies with critical perspective to such historical frame have pointed out

    that revision of the Mental Health Act of 1987 was not intended by the victims

    of the Utsunomiya Hospital, but reflected on intentions of organizations for families,

    psychiatrists, and lawyers exclusively. However, they have not described

    claims of people with psychosocial disabilities. So, descriptions of history without

    people concerned have been repeatedly quoted. This study aims to clarify

    the claims of the social movements of people with psychosocial disabilities

    against revision of the Mental Health Act of 1987. It analyzes the historical descriptions

    of such social movements and their claims. The analysis clearly

    demonstrated that the focus of social movements of people with psychosocial

    disabilities was on abolition rather than revision, because the Mental Health Act

    was an authority for involuntary hospitalization with peace preservation nature.

    The claims of movements highlighted promotion of discriminative opinions of

    citizens who alienated people with psychosocial disabilities by portraying them

    as dangerous and excluded them thorough involuntary hospitalization. Such

    claims were unique to people with psychosocial disabilities in term of pointing

    out commonality between abolition of the Mental Health Act and opposition of

    security measures. As above, this study reveals claims of social movements of

    people with psychosocial disabilities, which have been invisible in previous his

    torical descriptions of a law revision on Mental Health Act with exclusion of

    persons concerned.

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  • Positioning of Malthusian Population Theory in Social Policy
    Karahari YAMADA
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 129-150
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     This paper aims to reexamine the genealogical study of “The Social” in Japan

    in relation to the debate over population. Specifically, it focuses on discussions

    regarding the right to existence in social policy and examines its relationship to

    population theory.

     It was believed that the right to existence, the starting point of “The Social” in

    Japan, was limited by Malthus’ law of population, and concurrently, that the

    limit was extended by the law of population. This is because it was considered

    that the struggle for existence resulting from the law of population denies the

    universal right to existence and, at the same time, constitutes the mechanism of

    progress. Then, by connecting to the idea of the “progress” of social policy, the

    latter aspect was especially emphasized in social policy.

     Conversely, it was believed that social order would be broken if the struggle

    for existence became too intense due to population increase. In relation to “order,”

    another concept of social policy, the issue of the right to existence became

    newly positioned as an issue of life security.

     Thus, to create a state of competition in the compatibility of “progress” and

    “order,” social policy attempted to control the population, which is the fundamental

    condition of competition. Subsequently, a comprehensive population

    policy, which should be called “the social population policy,” was instituted.

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  • Satoshi OTAYA
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 151-173
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Following the growing interest in child developmental disorders, adult developmental

    disorders have also become a social issue, but improvements in support

    for adults with developmental disorders is insufficient when compared with

    the demand. Instead, there is a growing need for peer support. There are also

    many points which have not been clarified regarding methods by which persons

    with developmental disorders presenting various characteristics share and solve

    their difficulties. This paper examines how users mutually guarantee “trust” and

    reduce social uncertainty in communities of persons with developmental disorders.

     The findings of this paper are as follows. First, the diagnosis of “developmental

    disorder” by itself has no significant meaning in confirming membership in a

    community of people with developmental disorders. Second, being a person

    with a developmental disorder is a condition for professionals to be trusted as

    supporters. Third, based on the trust that they are experiencing similar difficulties,

    ritualistic acts are exempted in the community. Fourth, the members of the

    community confirm their own physical condition by referring to the physical

    conditions of other members. Fifth, the exemption of ritualistic acts leads to the

    nullification of interpersonal risks.

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  • Multilevel Modeling forPrediction by Kinship, Tasks, and Public Services
    Hayato NISHINO
    Article type: research-article
    2021 Volume 18 Pages 175-194
    Published: May 31, 2021
    Released on J-STAGE: July 02, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     This study investigates the determinants of intergenerational practical

    support in the Japanese context and focuses on the following sub-questions:

    “Who is responsible for familial care for elderly parents?” and “How

    do private care patterns relate to public care services?” Moreover, the

    study distinguishes practical support into physical care and housekeeping

    help. Data were derived from the Japanese Aging and Health Dynamics

    Study. Dyadic data composed of two levels were generated. The first-level

    variables include respondent's information, whereas second-level variables

    pertain to information about a respondent's children and child's spouse. A

    multilevel multinomial logistic regression model, which predicts intergenerational

    help from adult children to elderly parents, was estimated. The

    outcome consists of three categories of caregiving status, namely, “No

    care,” “Giving physical care,” and “Giving only practical housekeeping

    help.” “No care” is used as the reference category. The study observed the

    following points. First, daughters are the most frequent caregivers in a

    child generation. Second, compared with fathers, mothers receive more

    frequent housekeeping help, but less regular physical care from children.

    Third, according to tasks, Japanese public in-home services promote daily

    physical caregiving by a child generation. Conversely, utilizing public care

    services did not significantly influence practical housekeeping help by a

    child generation.

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