In 1998 we studied the ranging and roosting behaviors of an adult male Grey-faced Buzzard in a low mountain region at Ogawa Town, central Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The male was confirmed to be breeding in early May when we started our survey, but failed in the breeding in early June (probably the late stage of incubation). The male was captured and fitted with a radio-transmitter. We radio-tracked the male from early May to late September (immediately before the migration). The home range size of the male was 0.60km2 during the incubation period (May). After the breeding failure (June-July), the range size expanded to 5.03km2 encompassing the whole range of the incubation period, and thereafter (August-September) it came to be 2.52km2. The male did not roost at the same place on two successive days. During the incubation period the average distance between two roost sites on consecutive days was 184±106 SD m (N=3, range: 60-250m, SD=standard deviation), but thereafter increased to 1, 153±795 SD m (N=31, range: 80-2, 875m).
The global distribution and status of colonies of the Streaked Shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas) were elucidated on the basis of a comprehensive survey of all published literature, of unpublished literature, and a specimen survey and interviews. Information on colony population size was also obtained. The species occurs or occurred on a total of 98 islands in East and South-east Asia; consisting of 86 islands where breeding occurs (breeding islands), 11 islands with a high likelihood of breeding occurring, and one island with a low likelihood of breeding occurring. The 86 breeding islands, including three on which breeding has definitely or possibly ceased, are located in the following seas from 24-42°N, 121-142°E; 30 islands (35%) in the Pacific, 20 (23%) in the Sea of Japan, 16 (19%) in the East China Sea, 9 (10%) in the Yellow Sea, 7 (8%) in Tsushima Strait, and 4 (5%) around Taiwan. Japan hosts 72 (84%) of the 86 islands, South Korea hosts 6, China hosts 4, North Korea hosts 2, and Russia and Taiwan host one each. Thus most of the breeding islands are located on the continental shelf in the seas surrounding the Japanese Archipelago, an area of high marine productivity. Information on present colony status was unavailable for 21 (24%) of the 86 breeding islands, most of which were in Japan. Streaked Shearwaters still breed on the remaining 62 (72%) islands (52 of which are in Japan) but probably no longer breed on the three other islands. Most (80%) of the 86 breeding islands are situated in temperate areas within the 5-20°C zone of average Spring (March) surface water temperatures; 42% of the islands within the 15-20°C zone, 20% within the 10-15°C zone and 19% within the 5-10°C zone. The remaining 20% are within the 20-25°C (10%) and 1-5°C (9%) zones. Streaked Shearwater populations have recently tended to increase rapidly in the higher latitudes for this species (38-40°N) within the 5-10°C zone in the subarctic boundary between the warmer and colder currents in the northwest Pacific, where about 100, 000 birds breed on the uninhabited islands. Breeding activities largely take place on those islands with a large Streaked Shearwaters population, which corresponds to about 30% of the breeding islands, while only 1-2% of the breeding population breed on the remaining 70% of islands hosting small or medium-size populations. The number of breeding birds on 36 islands (excluding Mikura Island, which has by far the largest population), was recently estimated as 816, 000 birds. As the Mikura Island total was roughly estimated to be 1, 750, 000-3, 500, 000 birds, the total number of Streaked Shearwaters breeding on the 37 islands amounted to 2, 566, 000-4, 316, 000 birds. Further population surveys of the Mikura Island population are needed, as this single estimate greatly influences the size of the estimated world population for this species. Up-to-date information on the status and distribution of Chinese and Korean populations of the Streaked Shearwater is also desired, as both countries have many offshore islands near the breeding zone for the species.
Within Japan, the Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica is bird species familiar to many people. It was first designated as a game species in 1918, and has been captive-bred and released into the wild since the early 1970s. An examination of the annual numbers of quails hunted, based on Wildlife Statistics data and other literature sources, indicates that the population level of Japanese Quail started to decline in the 1930s, and has subsequently shown a dramatic decrease. Japanese Quail is thought to have no harmful effects on agriculture, and has retained its status as a game species solely owing to its value as a hunting target. In 1998 the Japanese Quail was listed as DD (Data Deficient) on the Japanese Red List, and its designation as a game species should therefore be reconsidered as soon as possible. For the Japanese Quail population to recover from its from endangered status a combination of stricter hunting regulations and the active restoration of suitable habitat is urgently required.
Recently albatrosses have been reclassified from the previously recognized 14 species to 24 species based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (Robertson & Nunn 1998). The new 24 species are composed of 4 phylogenetic groups-North Pacific Albatrosses (Phoebastria), the Great Albatrosses (Diomedea), the Sooty Albatrosses (Phoebetria), and the Southern Mollymawks (Thalassarche). We recommend provisional Japanese common names till final verification of albatross taxonomy is authorized.