Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology
Online ISSN : 1882-0999
Print ISSN : 1348-5032
ISSN-L : 1348-5032
Volume 47 , Issue 2
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
  • Shin-ichiro Kawada
    2016 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 59-93
    Published: March 20, 2016
    Released: December 12, 2018

    Alan Owston is one of the most famous naturalists of the Meiji Period in Japan. His contribution to natural history knowledge was briefly introduced in previous literature, however, no detailed biographic and bibliographic information was made available. This review compiles his achievements within both industrial and natural history contexts, drawing upon information obtained from academic publications, reports of research organizations and public newspaper articles. It pays especial attention to his friendships with contemporary specialists in several fields around the world, and also his employees, including specimen collectors of his company ‘Alan Owston’ at Yokohama. The author hopes this review will provide a basic data set of his life as a background to understanding the development of Japanese technological and biological research during the Meiji Period.

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Original Article
  • Masatoshi Yui, Yutaka Egashira
    2016 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 95-121
    Published: March 20, 2016
    Released: December 12, 2018

    By improving the Band model (Band et al. 2007), Yui and Shimada (2013) developed a sphere shape model to estimate the number of bird-wind turbine collisions. However, given that the density distribution of birds flying through a proposed wind farm site is not uniform, a new method was developed whereby a proposed wind farm site is divided into blocks by the block count method to estimate the number of collisions in each block. First, the mean flight distances of birds passing through square blocks and circular blocks are calculated theoretically. Then, the calculated results are multiplied by the frequency of each bird species passing through the blocks in a certain period of time, which produces their total flight distances in each block. Once the total flight distances are obtained, the sphere shape model can be applied to estimate the number of bird-wind turbine collisions in each block for each bird species. Spherical models are based on the assumption that birds fly in a straight line in a wind turbine collision risk zone. We here show that spherical models and the block count method can be applied to both circling flight paths and curved flight paths. The number of collisions for circling and curved flight paths is close to the straight flight cases in every flight radius, except those under about 20 m radius, at which collision numbers of the smaller raptors become 1.3 times larger than that of straight flight paths. If the flight speed of birds decreases during the circling flight, the number of collisions rises in inverse proportion to the flight speed.

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Short Notes
  • Naoki Tomita, Fumio Sato, Yasuko Iwami
    2016 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 123-129
    Published: March 20, 2016
    Released: December 12, 2018

    We have monitored the status of Black-tailed Gulls Larus crassirostris breeding on Tobishima Island since 2004. On Yurijima Islet, we estimated 2,034 nests in 1 June 2014 and observed a single cat Felis catus in the breeding colony and the carcasses of 14 adult Black-tailed gulls that probably were killed by a cat. We also found feathers of adult Black-tailed Gulls in a single cat feces collected on the mainland of Tobishima. Approximately 1,500 nests were estimated on Tateiwa Islet in 2009, but no nests were found in May 2014. To conserve the breeding sites of Black-tailed Gulls at Tobishima, immediate control management of the feral cat population is essential.

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  • Kouta Muramatsu, Jun Yamamoto, Takuzo Abe, Bungo Nishizawa, Naoki Hosh ...
    2016 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 130-135
    Published: March 20, 2016
    Released: December 12, 2018

    Seabirds capture squid in many ways, that mainly involve diving to capture them at the ocean surface or underwater. We present here the first photographic evidence of a seabird, a Red-footed Booby Sula sula, capturing an airborne squid. When a school of squid took flight following disturbance by our boat, a booby flying alongside swooped and approached a flying squid from behind, caught it in the air and ascended quickly. Soon after swallowing the squid, the booby made a plunge-dive and caught another squid that had just landed in the water after a period in flight. Plunge-diving was subsequently repeated over a separate school of squid that had just re-entered the water after flight. Seabirds other than the Red-footed Booby may have frequent opportunities for finding and feeding on airborne squid.

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