Seven eggs of Cairina moschata, incubated 19 days in Formosa, were air transported to Tokyo, where they were all hatched artifitially by incubator. These eggs were taken from an incubating female at Taihoku, 7 p.m., July 6, and were kept in a paper box during transportation for 24 hours, until they were put in an incubator at Tokyo, 7p.m., July 7. The incubation period was 33-34 days as in normally incubated Muscovy Duck eggs.
Although there are numerous birds which feed on fish, the method of catching fish varies greatly. Cormorant is one of the animals which catch fish diving into the water. It has a shape very suitable to catch fish diving into the water. The method of fishing with Cormorant practiced on the River Nagara, Gifu Pref. is widely known abroad, and the Cormorant used for that purpose is called Temminck's Cormorant Phalacrocorax capillatus (Temminck et Schlegel) which is domesticated and trained. Cormorant, when diving into the water, turns skillfully right and left following the fish, and finally catches it with its beak. Cormorant usually attacks the vital spot of the fish at a stretch, and therefore, it hardly fails to catch it unless otherwise the fish is extremely large or its skin is too smooth. The fishing period on the River Nagara is for five months, May 11 up to October 15 of the year, and the majority of the Cormorant's catch is Ayu Plecoglossus attivelis Temminck et Schlegel, and it comes to 70% of the total catch. The biting marks left by Cormorant greatly differ from those effected by other birds and they resemble the marks out with scissors, and their position are as shown in Figure No. 1. The marks. in the case of Ayu, are invariably made from the attacks from the top, and its epidermis is torn and scales come off. When it bites the fish too strongly, however, its dorsal fin is sometimes broken, or it bleeds under the skin. When the wound is serious, its muscles are cut and its viscera comes out (Ref. to Figure No. 1). Figure No. 2 shows the difference between the marks left by Cormorant's upper chap and those left by its lower one. (Left-by upper chap, right-by lower chap.) As regards the distribution of the biting marks left on the skin of Ayu, if it is divided into 8 parts as in Fig. No. 4, they are centered on parts 2 and 3, and it appears to be because its important internal organs are therein. If it is divided as in Fig. No. 5, the majority of the biting marks are left on part two, just as in the case of Fig. No. 4.
The species of Japanese Diplopods seemed to have been included completely in "The Diplopods of Japan and its Adjacent Territories" (issued in 1954) by Mr. Yosioki Takakuwa. On the contrary, many new species have been added and shown by Mr. Yasunori Miyosi, Mr. Akiharu Haga and others, and there seems to be no limit to its appearance. We are also going to state hereunder about the two groups new to science. They both belong to Fam. Leptodesmidae, Gen. Japonaria and are comparatively of large size for the Japanese Diplopods. The specific name of the new species was dedicated to Dr. Yosioki Takakuwa, pioneer in the study of the Japanese Diplopods.
Recently spontaneous short-tailed rats appeared in a random-breeding colony of the Long-Evans stock. They have the tail which has a blunt end instead of being pointed. The length of the tail varies from nearly normal to more or less than half normal size. Attempts are now being made to establish the short-tail (brachyury) line with its genetical analysis.
The general character of the tissue culture clone of a methylcholanthrene-induced spindle-cell sarcoma was described in the present paper. The spindle-cell sarcomas were induced in 16 rats out of 20 which received, twice at a 15-day interval, 0.5cc of 0.5 per cent methylcholanthrene dissolved in olive oil. A tissue culture clone was established from one of rats bearing the spindle-cell sarcomas. The roller tube method was adopted for tissue culture; pieces of the tumor tissue were planted on cover slips in clots consisting of equal parts of fowl plasma and 50 per cent chicken extract, and fed with 2ml of culture medium composed of 2 parts of balanced salt solution (Tyrode's or Gey's), 2 parts of horse serum and 1 part of 50 per cent chicken extract. The medium was renewed 3 times a week. The subculture was made every 7 or 8 days. After the 8th subculture (53 days after being transferred in vitro), the culture material was returned to a new rat subcutaneously. The rat which received the tumor injection produced the spindle-cell sarcoma with the nature similar to the original tumor. In the tissue culture material, two kinds of cells, one is a spindle-shaped and the other is a round-shaped cell, were observed. The chromosome investigation in the tissue culture material indicated that there exist at least two populations characterized by near-diploid and near-tetraploid cells respectively.
This is the summary for the breeding biology of the Grey Starling so far reported in Nos. 9 and 10. In the article in No. 10 the data obtained in 1957 are cited when necessary, but the details will be published elsewhere. The general results are: 1) Commenced from early February, the preparatory period lasted almost a month and half during which the birds acted by pairs staying at nest-site and going out for feeding (within about 800m.). But, the winter flocking was maintained out on the feeding grounds until early April. From March they gradually abandoned the winter roost to sleep at the bamboo thicket of their colony (the spring roost) (but where this is not available the winter roost is maintained). During the egg-laying period, they seemed to roost at each nest-site separately for a short time, but during the incubation and feeding periods one of the pair (possibly the male) or both birds (after chicks are fairy grown) went to the roost, and the fledged young are guided to it by the parents and other adult birds. 2) As shown in the Tables 3, 4 and Figs. 4, 5, it is to be noticed that the first broods are successful by the coincidence of the highest food abundance and availability (of mole-crickets dug out by ploughing) with the chicks' fledging period, but for the second chicks the available foods are mainly small larvae and miscellaneous (Fig. 4) and thus, the parents could not bring enough quantity of food in later broods (cf. Fig. 6 for mal-nutrition of such chicks compared with those of the first brood). This point should be studied in future in the early ploughing districts (and the results of 1957 obtained in different food situation, such as in city zone, will be given in another paper). 3) In the colony, the nest-site territories were noticed (Fig. 7), and the pairs of bad sites or those which failed to get nest-hole spent much time for quarrel or seeking good sites. Such a psychological state prolonged the egg-laying almost 20 days in some cases, and thus, the latest clutches were laid over a month later than the earliest. Good-site nesters were therefore early layers and are possibly old birds, but often suffured competition with others. After flying of the first brood chicks, some nest-boxes were at once utilized by Tree Sparrow (Table 6) and were occasionally reoccupied by the starlings (Table 8a). 4) The nesting for second brood was made after completely taking out wet dirty material of the first brood nest (Table 6.) This was observed on the 2nd and 4th days after leaving of the first brood chicks, and new nests were completed after about 4-8 days, the eggs having been laid on the 5-16th days (Table 8a). 5) Before and during the nesting period there were found some eggs dropped on the ground, crashed on the roof or laid on the bare floor of the nest-boxes, or also under roosting place. This is considered as a case of disorder between the bird's psychological condition and breeding cycle. 6) In the nesting period, the both sexes always act together, and the nest material (chiefly dead bamboo leaves, pine needles and some feathers of domestic fowl) are gathered within the colony, even under nesting trees. 7) Almost all the nest-boxes were quickly occupied by putting in a few material (Gibb's "spurious nest", and may be an expression of the male's nest-owning appetite' (Kortlandt, '55)) which are sometimes taken out or reput, but the nesting advanced very slowly, the period of 24-42 days being roughly divided into three stages as shown in Table 7, and the nest is usually suddenly completed by the 'final stage' in about 4 days. They work hardest in the early morning and only at leisure in the afternoon. Their daily routine is the chain of "stay at nest-site" (nesting or mere inspection and rest) and "off for feeding", the peaks of the latter phase being in the morning and especially in the evening (Table 9 and Fig. 8).