Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology
Online ISSN : 1883-3659
Print ISSN : 0044-0183
Volume 1 , Issue 13
Showing 1-4 articles out of 4 articles from the selected issue
  • Yoshimaro Yamashina, Shinji Takano
    1959 Volume 1 Issue 13 Pages 505-521
    Published: October 05, 1959
    Released: November 10, 2008
    1. According to the Japanese Section's decision to take part in the 1958 International Census of the White Stork, proposed by Dr. E. Schüz of Germany at the Xth Conference of I. C. B. P. held in S. Rhodesia, 1957, the Japanese Association for Bird Preservation has carried out a census in Japan.
    2. The number of nests and chicks reported were as follows:
    1958 1959
    Number of nests 11 14
    Nests in use 9 10
    Nests where chick fledged 1 2
    Young birds flew 1 3
    3. Until early nineteenth century, the Japanese Stork was generally common in Japan, decreasing thereafter to be finally restricted to the Pref. Fukui and Hyogo, Central Honshiu. Its records from Hokkaido (Tokachi), Honshiu (Akita, Fukui, Ishikawa, Chiba, Yokohama, Hyogo), Shikoku (Tokushima), given in the Hand-List. 1958, are all old ones, except Ishikawa, Fukui and Hyogo.
    4. Replies to the Forestry Agency's Stork inquiry included its observation in Tochigi, Gumma, Fukui, Yamanashi, Nagano, Shiga and Hyogo, but Hyogo and Fukui are the only places where it is resident.
    5. To another inquiry made by 'Shukan Asahi' Journal reports of its observation were sent from Akita, Miyagi, Ishikawa, Fukui, Hyogo, Shiga, Osaka and Yamanashi, but new resident locality was not added.
    6. Izushi district in Hyogo has been its traditional breeding place since 1894. Here the maximum was ca. 100 birds of 1930 and decreased to 20 birds in 1956. In 1958, and 1959, the numbers of nests and chicks reported as follows:
    1958 1959
    Nests in use 7 8
    Nests where chick fledged 1 1
    Young birds flew 1 1
    Individual birds 15 17 (1 bird died)
    7. Its first breeding in Fukui was reported in 1957 at two localities, Takefu and Obama, with the following later results:
    1957 1958 1959
    Nests in use 2 2 2
    Nests where chick fledged 1 0 1
    Young birds flew 3 (1 fledged chick died) 0 2 (1 fledged chick died)
    Individual birds 8 6 7 (1 bird died)
    8. The following protective measures are deemed necessary:
    1) Restriction of agricultural insecticides, 2) Preparation of artificial feeding places free from the insecticides, 3) Protection of pine woods as nesting sites, 4) Preparation of artificial nesting sites, and 5) Research on association with the herons.
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  • Haruo Takashima
    1959 Volume 1 Issue 13 Pages 522-530
    Published: October 05, 1959
    Released: November 10, 2008
    The Gotô Islands are under the administration of Nagasaki Prefectural Government in Kyûshû District. These islands consist of more than one hundred isles scattered over an area of 100km. to the northwest of the main island Fukaé, which is situated approximately 92km. away in the due west of the Port Nagasaki. Gotô means five islands, and they are represented by the five principal islands among the above isles, namely, Fukaé, Naru, Wakamatsu, Nakadôri and Uku.
    The investigation on the fauna of these islands has scarcely been made so far, and I have referred in my report to the following questions:
    1. Mammals of the Gotô Islands-I have made a detailed report especially on Musk Shrew Suncus murinus (Linné) brought into the island Fukae from Nagasaki and its neibourhood after the War. It seems that these Musk Shrew were brought in with the ships' cargo, etc. and came to breed there.
    2. Regarding reptiles, there seem to be at least 15 species including Sea Turtles and Sea Serpents. I have given a key to discriminate these species.
    3. On amphibians: 7 species are now known. However, the number of species is supposed to be increased with further investigation in the future.
    4. Among insects, cicadas and butterflies are known to considerable extent. 6 species of cicadas have already been put on record so far. As for butterflies, 45 species have been recorded, the number of the species will be increased up to 60, there being some other common species which have not yet been collected. The noteworthy ones among the above species of butterfly are Papilio memnon thunlergii Siebold, Celastrina argiolus ladonides (de l'Orza), Everes lacturnus kawaii Matsumura, Precis orithya (Linné), Hypolimnas misippus (Linnré), etc
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  • Akiko Sato
    1959 Volume 1 Issue 13 Pages 531-534
    Published: October 05, 1959
    Released: November 10, 2008
    The present paper is to report the results of some preliminary observations on hormone-induced superfecundity in mature and immature mice, with special reference to the number of young.
    The mice used are of D-240 strain: they are 60 and 35 days in age. The average litter size from 82 litters of this strain was found to be 6.5, with a range from 2 to 12.
    The mice in various stages of oestrus cycle received an intramuscular injection of 5 I. U. pregnant mere's serum "Serotropin" (Teikoku Hormone M. F. G. Co.), a follicle stimulating hormone. After about 40 hours, the animals were injected again with 10 I. U, human chorionic hormone "Primogonyl" (Schering A. G.). After treatments the mice were mated by being placed with males at the rate of one female to three males. On the following morning, the females were inspected for presence of the copulatory plug in their vaginas, and some of them were sacrificed for examining superfecundation.
    The number of new-born young obtained in this experiment was 63 in total; they vary from 11 to 15 by individual, being 12.6 on an average (Table 1).
    The results are striking in showing a remarkable superfecundation, on the basis that the number of young in control was 6.5 on an average.
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  • Nagahisa Kuroda
    1959 Volume 1 Issue 13 Pages 535-552
    Published: October 05, 1959
    Released: November 10, 2008
    Continued from the Part 2, reported in No. 10 of this journal, the following are described: 1) 90 eggs of 17 first and 3 second clutches were measured and the Size Index (length x width), Shape Index (width/length %) and Volume Index (weight/size index %) were calculated. The details are treated in other separate paper and only the comparison between the first and second clutches is reported. The general trend was smaller and rounder in the second clutches but in a second clutch of a pair the eggs were distinctly larger (in two other pairs smaller). 2) Eggs are hatched on the 12th day of incubation. A chick became strong enough to gape 40-50 minutes after complete hatching. The growth curve in weight a little inclines from the 12th day (but straight in case of the brood of one chick) when the feathers begin to grow. The maximum, 83gm. being the extreme, is reached at the 15th day, and they fly at the average of 77-78gm. on the 21st and 22nd days. Those grew heavier than about 80gm. loose and the light ones below 70gm. gain the weight on flying. 3) In small broods of 2 or 3 chicks the size difference in chicks is rather distinct until flying but in larger broods the growth rate of chicks interchange in course of time and the growth curves become rather uniform. The brood of 4 chicks seems to be most efficient in this 'number effect' in correlation with timing of digestion to become hungry in turn. 4) The correlation with growth of the body length (from shoulder to cloaca), body temperature (below the theigh) and breathing rate (number in 15 seconds) was recorded and from these the nestling period could be divided into three stages: The 1st week, the naked stage, when the breathing rate rarely reaches or overs 20 and the body temperature 35°C at about the 5th day, the Growth Index (body weight/body length %) not reaching 70% until about 6th day. The 2nd week when the feather sheaths appear. The body temperature reaches 39°C and from the 7th day the breathing rate reaches 20-22, which are the average of matured birds, but still decreases to 15-17 by cooling and on the other hand becomes capable of increasing up to 25-28 or 30 in the nest as high as 90-100°C or by feeling 'anxiety' taken in human hand. The Growth Index reaches 90-100% at 10th-13th day. In the 3rd week when the feathers cover the whole body, the body temperature becomes constant and averages at 40°C. The body weight reaches the maximum and the Growth Index overs 100%, but then decreasing with the loss in body weight after 17th day. 5) The increase of body length is rather constant but the body weight, breathing rate and body temperature are very susceptible to the cooling and hunger as shown in Tables 18, 19 and 20. 6) The feeding rate of parents is subject to the age and number of chicks and a case of low feeding rate in the brood of two chicks is reported. At first, the male continues the watching which he used to do during the incubation period and the female needs some time to brood the chicks, which may take rather long time to digest the large food given. 7) The interval of 5 minutes may be the maximum feeding rate for a parent as it flies 100-800m. chiefly in search of secretive Mole-crickets. This means 12 times an hour, hence 24 times an hour by two parents. But the actual most frequent feeding was 14 times an hour. Parents with 7 chicks worked very hard and raised them successfully. Also they worked hard for experimental 9 chicks whose growth was, however, much lower than average (result of 1957). When a parent was lost two and three chicks only could survive from brook sizes of 5 and 4. Individual difference in feeding ability of parents is well reflected in the growth rate of chicks of Nos. 10, 15 and 7 (Fig. 12).
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