This is to explain the change of animal life of our country which has taken place since old times up to the present. Before the Meiji era our country was small, and there were only a few savage beasts and venomous snakes. We may give as savage beasts, the Japanese Black Bear, the Japanese Wolf (died out at the end of the Meiji era), and as for the large-sized mammal, though they can not be called savage beasts, the Whit-moustached Boar, the Japanese Serow, the Japanese Deer may be mentioned. As to the venomous snakes, there was only the Japanese Pit-viper. Therefore, if the birds and beasts of large size and of splendid colour came over from foreign countries, they were enough to give a surprise to the Japanese; and animals and birds of that kind had been coming actually since very old times. But the coming of those animals and birds never threw the Japanese fauna into confusion. As one of the remarkable instances that men gave to the fauna a change artificially, there was in the Edo period the slaying of the Wild Boar of Tsushima. During the eras of Genroku and Hoei, the Wild Boar did men so much harm in Tsushima that Mr. Suyama, magistrate of Tsushima feudatory made a great resolution to slay them out, and succeeded after ten years' hard effort-from the 13th year of Genroku down to the 6th year of Hoei (1700-1709). During the Edo period, some birds and animals came over from foreign contreies or were brought into Japan from Korea, and they have been settled in our country. For example, the Korean Ringnecked Pheasant, the Korean Magpie, the Rik Kiu Grey Musk Shrew and the Bed-bug are remarkable among them. As stated above, the curious birds and beasts which had not been found in Japan came over frequently from abroad since old times. Especially, since the intercourse between Japan and Holland, and other countries was commenced during the Edo period, curious animals began to come over in succession from India and Malay. The Asiatic Elephant which came over in the 13th year of Kyoho (in 1728) and the One Humped Camel in the 4th year of Bunsei (in 1821) were most famous and had a great influence on Japanese culture. The great change Restoration, however, caused the Japanese fauna a remarkable change for forty or fifty years thereafter. In extreme cases, the tribes which spread to a great extent, such as the Yezo Wolf Canis lupus hattai in Hokkaido and the Japanese Wolf Canis lupus hodopylax in Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, met with the misfortune of being slayed out completely. Among the birds which suddenly disappeared from Japan proper after the Meiji period were large-sized ones. There are only two places now in Japan where Cranes always come over in winter. Their kinds, too, are only the Hooded Crane and the White-naped Crane. Siberian White Crane Grus leucogeranus which once came over to Japan together with those two and was not rare in Kyushu has somehow never been seen since the Meiji period. There is only one mounted specimen in Japan, but the very one does not seem to be Japanese-bred. Japanese Stork Ciconia ciconia boyciana and Japanese Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon are all but being extinct in Japan.
Mitake Shôsenkyô, western part of Chichibu-Tama National Park in Yamanashi Prefecture is well known to people for its beautiful view of valley. The author completed a research of bird status of this district throughout the year by many years investigation. He has described the general survey of bird status. The list shown not only the coming and leaving of birds in each season, but also their distributions and breeding conditions. Tables and figures are more crearly explained in the above mentioned list. He concluded that Shôsenkyô has abundant numbers of migratory birds and also comparatively large numbers of valley birds, while it has no passage birds because of its geographic location.
Coturnix d. delegorguei is, a species of the quail occurring in south-eastern Africa, imported to the United States, being close to the Japanese form, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Dr. S. Makino, Hokkaido University, fixed some embryonal gonads of C. d. delegorguei in California, U. S. A., and kindly placed them at the authors' disposal to investigate the chromosomes. The authors wish to express their thanks to Dr. Sajiro Makino for his kindness in supplying the material and for his helpful advice. Further the authors' cordial thanks are due to the kind supports given by Dr. Jean Delacour, director of County Museum, Los Angeles. The chromosomes were investigated in the embryonic testes. The spermatogonial metaphase shows 78 chromosomes in _??_ 2n. Morphologically the chromosomes show a distinct demarkation into a macro- and micro-group. The macro-chromosome group comprises 8 pairs, 16 in number. They are represented by aV+bV+cR+dJ+ev+fr+gr+hr. The micro-chromo-somes are 62 in number, varying in shape from short rods to spherulus. The chromosome of the Japanese Quail, Coturnix c. japonica were studied by Oguma (1938) and revised by Yamashina (1951). The comparison of the chromosomes between the Japanese Quail and the Harlequin Quail revealed that there is an agreement not only in the number of chromosomes but also in their morphological characters, though the length of the largest rod-shaped chromosomes varies in these two species. It is also noticeable that the karyotypes of these two species of Coturnix and the Chinese bamboo-pheasant (Bambusicola thoracica) are similar to the karyotype of the genus Gallus as Yamashina (1951) has already pointed out.
In the inbred stock of the Wistar albinos, a strain was separated which is remarkable in casting a large litter. While the Wistar albinos generally give a litter size of 6 or a little more in this laboratory, the number of young per litter in the new strain ranges from 8 to 13, giving the average litter size of 10. The first litter cast occurs within 3 months or a little more after birth. Then they breed at all seasons of the year, and give the litter at an interval of one or a little more. The growth of the young runs well and rapidly, showing the body weight of 50gm at 30 days of age even in the largest litter containing 13 young. Recently, it was found that the rats of the large litter size frequently produced the tailless offspring. Attempted crosses have been made to establish the tailless strain.