In the summer, 1954, four male White Leghorns and one Barred Plymouth Rock male were used for prolactin injection experiment. The White Leghorns belong to the Dryden strain which was imported in Japan in 1952. They are productive birds, although some of them produced broody offsprings. The Barred Plymouth Rock is a male of the cross between a non-broody hen and a cock whose non-broodiness had been proved by the prolactin experiment of 1951. The Leuteotrophin of E. R. Squibb & Sons, New York was used for prolactin in this study. Two experiments were made which are shown in the tables 1 and 2. The birds were injected after twelve and ten days dark room treatments, the results being as follows: First experiment: A male White Leghorn (S7-3131) showed broody habit after injection of 460 International Units (see fig. 1), but another male of the same kind (S7-3150) and male Plymouth (52S-211) showed no broodiness by injection of the same dose of prolactin. Second experiment: A male White Leghorn (S7-5705) showed broody habit after injection of 580 I. U. (see fig. 2 and 3), but another White Leghorn male (S7-691) showed no broodiness by injection of the same dose of prolactin. The results therefore indicate that to the injected prolactin the White Leghorn cocks reacted in two ways, positive and negative, as in the case of the Barred Plymouth Rock cocks. However, the intensity of reaction appears to be lower in the present experiment than in the case of previous ones, despite more dose of prolactin was injected this time. The effect of injection remained only for 3-4 weeks and the cocks brooded only at night and never in the daytime. These phenomena might be explained thus: the cocks which showed broody habit in the 1951 experiment would have been the genotype, AA. DD, while those used in the present experiment would be A. dd. or aa. D. Prolactin injection may therefore be useful not only for exclusion of highly broody cocks from a given stock, but also in excluding the cocks of slight broodiness from the selected strain.
It was Late Tani (1905) who recorded scientifically Euterpnosia chibensis, one of the remarkable cicadas in Japan. She gave a new Japanese name "Himé-haruzemi", because it looked like "Haruzemi" Terpnosia vacua but somewhat smaller and more graceful. The scientific name, however, was not clear and it was described as Gn? sp?. In 1917, over ten years had passed since then, Dr. S. Matsumura announced that it was a new genus and species, Euterpnosia chibensis, appointing "Mt. Yawata in the Prov. Chiba" as the type locality. (note: "Mt. Yawata" is not right; it should be called Hachiman-yama Hill.) He distinguished Euterpnosia chibensis from other allied genera, that is, Kamalata, Terpnosia, Rustia, etc. because of the characteristic wart-like tubercule on both sides of the male's fourth abdominal segment. It may as well be regarded that there is no doubt today about the scientific name of this species. Genus Euterpnosia is speciated into many species in Formosa today, and among all the species of the genus Euterpnosia, Euterpnosia chibensis is distributed most northerly. Euterpnosia chibensis is distributed from Ryukyu up to the Mainland, and it is of so-called the Oriental element and the limit of its coming up to north is, to some extent, similar to the one of Papilio helenus nicconicolens, Cryptotympana japonensis, etc. The areas of generation of this cicada are discontinuous in the Mainland, the period of lively singing of the imago is short and it has a queer habit of singing in chorus noisily by great number. It has also a characteristic shape and is one of the rare cicadas of Japan; There is even a folklore on this species at Kataniwa in Ibaraki Pref. as stated below. "Once upon a time there was a rich saké-brewer living close to the Hachiman Shrine. Like other rich people, great misers were they, especially the old wife, who was so stingy that she thought nothing of giving the other some pain if it was for the sake of money. One summer evening, an old priest came and begged her a meal. But the woman, perceiving his poor clothers, said to him very rudely; "You beggar priest, don't approach. If I have any food to eat, I would rather take it myself than give it to a stranger like you. You'd better drink water only, and say your beads. Go away right now." The priest answered, "Well, I see you will not spare me a meal though you have plenty at hand, but have used such abusive languages at me, telling me to live only on water and on beads. Then, woman, you live on water and take body of a cicada." Thus saying aloud, the priest pointed to an old big pasania which stood in the grounds of the Hachiman Shrine. And lo! the old woman disappeared at that instant, and thousands of cicadas were found instead sitting on the old tree. Now it is said that the priest was indeed His Worship Kobo in disguise who was then staying at the Tokuzoji Temple." I planned in summer, since 1952, to visit in order the northern and east-northern limits of this species and also other places of generation of this species in Kantô area, and could visit five of them. This is about the observation I made then. The known homes of this species in Niigata, Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures are as follows. At the place with a notemark it is appointed as a natural monument and preserved. There would be no instances in the foreign countries of cicada's being appointed as a national natural monument.
A male specimen was captured off the coast of Iwate Prefecture and the testis was fixed with Hermann's solution. The spermatogonial complex was found to contain 84 chromosomes. The macro-chromosome group comprises six pairs, being 12 in number. They are represented by the formula aV+bV+cR+dr+ev+fr. The micro-chromosomes are 72 in number, showing a variation in shape ranging from small rods to spherules. Based on the observations of the primary spermatocyte the haploid number of chromosomes was found to be 42. This result serves to confirm the diploid number observed in the which contains spermatogonial metaphase. According to Oguma (1937), the chromosomes of the Leach's fork-tailed petrel (Oceanodromal. leucorrhoa Vieillot) belonging to the related family, Procellariidae, the chromosome formula is given as 6R's+68r's. Thus, the Leach's fork-tailed petrel is remarkable in having the complex no V's and J's. In comparison with the chromosomes of Puffinus leucomelas here concerned there is no similarity between the two species, so far as the chromosome morphology is concerned.
As the result of many previous spring observations off the Pacific coast of northern Japan, the two porpoises, Phocaena (Phocaenoides) dallii dallii True (half-white below) and Ph. (Ph.) dallii truei (Andrews) (all-white below), had been seen always in non-mixed groups, though the overlap of distribution of the southern truei and nothern dallii was noticed to some extent. But, on July 13, 1954, the author observed several mixed groups of the two forms south and east of Cape Erimo, Hokkaido. These facts may suggest the psychological isolation existing between the two during the breeding season, the spring, even in overlap area, but this will be lost in summer when truei intrudes north into the range of dallii. However, this psychological isolation is by no means an absolute one as a truei-type faetus has been obtained from a dallii-type mother (May 16, 1950, off N. Honshu). This fact and that no intermediate individual occurs would suggest the monohybrid mechanism in their interbreeding, and the truei-type will be determined as complete dominant. The truei, therefore, is regarded as a small racial population evolved in the Japanese water by a dominant mutation from dallii of wide distribution from the North Pacific to Okhotsk and Japan Seas.