Local woodpecker damage has been claimed to the Forestry Bureau particulary after the war, and reports were brought also to Yamashina Museum through that Bureau. In this paper, the collected data, home and foreign, summarized by the author are presented, with his recent original research. The foreign data are based on the communications addressed to Dr. Yamashina for his letter of inquiry, and include a valuable paper (about protection of poles by wire-net) by Mr. E. W. Andersson of Sweden (Teknisk Tidskr. '53), who was so kind as to send us a whole English translation of his paper made by his friend. Our acknowledgments are equally due to: Miss Phyllis Barclay-Smith, Br. Sect., I. C. B. P., Mr. M. Laurie, Forest Res. Station, Surrey (England); Mr. Richard Pough, Nat. Mus., Mr. Rea King, Audubon Society (U. S. A.); Dr. Finn Salomonsen, Zool. Mus., Prof. Dr. Mathias Thomsen, Zool. Labor., Copenhagen (Denmark); Dr. Hörstadius, Zool. Instit., Uppsala and Dr. Count Nils Gyldenstorpe, for their kind presentation of data. We express thanks also to Mr. Hisamoto Nijo of Japan Electro-telegraph Laboratory as well as to Mr. Seiichi Kuzu, the Chief of Game Management Bureau, for their kind help. The actual status in Kasuga-mura, Gifu Prefecture, one of the most claimed districts, was visited by the author November 1954, and the result of two-days' survey made by help of Mr. Nobuaki Tanahashi, Prefectural Forest Officer, and Mr. Jinichi Ogura, owner of timber being damaged, is reported. Here, the cryptomeria is most damaged, few to over 10 holes per timber, including also few other trees, one bamboo and two electric poles (one is non-wired). They are damaged as no big trees, fit for woodpeckers to make holes, are found in surrounding young second growth (for charcoal) where they feed. And, therefore, to provide them with artificial subsitute block of timber or to plant big trees for future, will be recommended as a remedy. Before winter, the bird makes many half-dug holes at the same time, few of them being completed as hide and resting place. Thus, a bird (only one D. leucotos was seen) seems to work a fairy wide area. Damage in Europe and America seems to be confined to electric poles. In Japan, experiments were made about this subject by Kaburaki & Kuzu at Karuizawa (1950) and by Nakajima, Miyazaki University, in Kyushu (1954).
There are many Japanese who have heard the word "Humming-bird", but few have seen a live one and even the stuffed specimens were not seen by many people. Humming-birds were imported into Japan only twice before the Pacific War. The first person who bred the hummer was Mr. Rihee Okada, the aviculturist in Itami, Hyôgo Pref. while the second was Yamashina, the senior author. Thirteen humming-birds were brought into Japan in four groups across the Pacific by Mr. E. Kinsey, the bird-fancier in San Francisco. The species then imported were the Anna Humming-bird Calypte anna and the Allen Humming-bird Selasphorus sasin both of which inhabit the United States. One male of the former and a pair of the latter were the first to come to Japan on April 9, 1937 and the rest of them arrived one after the other in the following twelve months. Afterwards a pair of the Anna Humming-birds selected from among them were presented by the senior author to the Zoological Garden at Uéno, Tokyo. Here the first time in our country the live humming-birds were exhibited to the public to the great wonder of many Japanese, but unfortunately in a week they were found missing. On March 16, 1955 eight hummers from Brazil were brought in Japan and several of them were exhibited to the public in Uéno Zoo. It is said that those birds were the gift of a Japanese living there. Since those hummers were the first ones to arrive in this country after the war, they became a great topic among those who are fond of birds and animals. One of them represents Anthracothorax viridigula and the rest of them seem to be Eupetomena macroura. The senior author was so enthusiastic about keeping the hummers alive that one of the Anna Humming-birds lived for three years and nine months and one of the Allen Humming-birds for exactly four years both of which are the highest records of humming-bird breeding in Japan. One hummer sent to Mr. Okada from the U. S. A. died in a week, but the specific name of which is unknown.
To insure more accurate results in the fields of anatomical, physiological, genetical and medical investigations, it has been necessary to select healthy and purely-bred experimental animals kept under a standardized condition. Their production is a serious and worth-while task for the advance of biology and medicine. To answer this request, the Zoological Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, has maintained, under the care and direction of Makino, several stocks of rats and mice for research purposes to provide the necessary material for biological and medicai investigations carried on in this laboratory and others. The experience of our laboratory in the breeding and care of rats and mice has brought necessary devices for new cages, new diets, new methods of handling animals. Sixteen strains (or lines including sublines) of rats have been maintained in our colony: they are the Wistar-albino, WX-albino, Wistar-albino with large litter cast, Wistar-King-A (WKA), Wayne pink-eyed, Lister-albino, Tokyo-albino, Gifu-albino, Castle's black mutant • WKA/Ma and their four sublines, w/Ma • WKA/Ma, wp • w/MaMsMa. The maintainance of each stock has been making by sister-brother mating with particular regards to selection concerning litter size, fertility, growth, body weight and size, and resistance to diseases. Some devices for breeding and rearing rats, and for new diet were given in this paper in addition to the descriptions of rats for each strain with their general characteristics. The accounts on mice will appear in the following report.
The morphology of the sperm-head was studied in 9 species of the American rodents collected by Prof. S. Makino, with particular regards to the relationship to taxonomy. The morphological features of the sperm-head show remarkable differences characteristic, not only to species but also to family. Particularly the variation in size of the sperm-head is very distinct between families. Generally there is a similarity in the feature of the sperm-head between the species belonging to the genus.