1) This paper is based on the data obtained by r. v. Tansei Maru, between June 1977, and July in Sanriku offshore waters, the southern sea of Hokkaido, and the Okhotsk Sea, and reports the distribution and habits of Fulmarus glacialis and Puffinus tenuirostris. 2) The southern limit of F. glacialis in summer was approximately 39°-30'N and a sea surface temperature of 20°C was regarded as appropriate. 3) In areas where the sea temperature was 11-17°C F. glacialis and P. tenuirostris were abundant. 4) In the Okhotsk Sea, a cold upwelling zone existed in the vicinity of 100m isobath and the density of F. glacialis and P. tenuirostris was very high. This zone was estimated to a food supply for sea birds. 5) Large flocks of more than 20, 000 birds, P. tenuirostris were seen in the Okhotsk Sea.
The Indian Koel, Eudynamys scolopacea, a brood parasite, shows marked sexual dimorphism in adult plumage. While the males of the species show host-mimesis in plumage characters, females have a raptorial pattern in their plumage. However, the young female in the nest of its fosterers has a male-like appearance, obviously a morphological adaptation of much survival value. Adaptive features of the plumage contributing to the masking of the typical female pattern and to the host-mimesis have been studied. Juvenile males were also examined to ascertain the basic plumage type of the species. Comparison with other species of Cuckoos, both parasitic, reveals the significance of host-mimesis in the Koel nestlings. From the observations, it is proposed that the basic plumage pattern of the species is of the female type.
1. This survey was carried out eighteen surveyed areas in Hokkaido in 1976 and studied the population density and the habitat of the Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) in the breeding season. 2. Population density was different in each surveyed area. The highest density was 714.3/km2 in Aonae, the lowest was 43.5/km2 in Koshimizu, and the mean of all areas was 273.1/km2. 3. The surveyed areas were divided into groups which showed significant statical difference in population density. (Table 2) 4. Population density in the breeding season correlated best with the number of houses which were used as nesting sites (r=0.625>r0.05). A correlation between the population density and the human population was also seen (r=0.488>r0.05). 5. The Feeding area was in the vicinity of the house, and 100% in group I, 99.9% in group II, , 100% in group III, 96.2% in group IV, 96.0% in group V, and 88.2% in group VI fed within 50m of the house. (Fig. 4) 6. In group I, feeding in the garden was most common (30.6%). In groups II and III, feeding in grassland was common (27.6% and 25.5%). In groups IV, V and VI, feeding in cultivated fields was common (31.4%, 21.8%: and 35.5%). 7. A correlation between the surface area of the main feeding place and the number of birds visiting the place for feeding was seen (in Kotoni Town: r=0.936>r0.001, in Atsubetsu: r=0.747>r0.05, and in Oyafuru: r=0.644>r0.1).
The breeding study of the Eastern Harsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus spilontus had been carried out in the special refuge of the Ogata-grassland of the Hachirogata reclimed land for three years (from 1976 to 1978). I found one nest in each year, and there was only one nest (in 1978) a chick grew up. The nests built were fairly rough. Dead reeds and grasses were piled up disorderly on a base of the nest. Eggs were laid every 3.3 days on an average, and the number of eggs was 7 in 1976, 5 in 1977, and 6 in 1978 repectively. One of 6 eggs hatched out on the nest in 1978. The growing of a chick showed a tendency to be slow in the early stage, and quick in the late stage. After the hatching out, the chick stood up with its elbows by about 17th day, and came to stand up with its legs streched out py about 25th day. About 27th days later, the chick left the nest, and moved on the grassland from place to place. A month later, the plumage of the chick changed to be dark brown (over its head, back, wings and tail), and looked like a bird of prey. About 35 days later, it began to practice beating its wings. It is very interesting that the male carried and passed foods to the female in the air. It took about seven minutes to do it. I observed the interesting habit that the chick had the six times movement that the chick pushed down the grass, and paved there dead grasses to build imitating nests everytime he moved. The male took foods at the place about 5km away from the nest, and its behaviour of the defence for the territory was observed about 150-200m away from the nest.
In this paper I report rare and new records of birds from Okinawa Islands with some notes. 1. Otis tarda dybowskii Date: Jan. 1968, S. Yamashiro leg., Okinawa I. (new record). Point of capture: open field in the northern part of Okinawa I. Food: grasshoppers, weed seeds. 2. Haliaeetus albicilla albicilla Date: Nov. 1978. T. Fukuchi, Iriomote I. (first observation). Point of observation: tideland at the mouth of the River Nakama. Food: small fishes. 3. Corvus monedula dauuricus Date: Oct. 1977, T. Tomori & T. Fukuchi (first observation), Jan. 1978 and Jan. 1979, T. Fukuchi, Iriomote I. Point of observation: pasture in the northern part of Iriomote I. Food: frogs and earthworms. 4. Platalea minor Date: Mar. 1967, K. Tsuchiya & I. Obara (first observation), Jan. 1977, O. Ohama, Iriomote I. Point of observation: paddy field and mangrove zone. Food: small fishes.