1. Breeding distributions of 11 woodpecker species in the 98 Japanese Islands and neighboring islands were analysed from the ecological viewpoint. 2. The number of breeding species tends to be larger in larger islands. 3. Among the five species which breed both in the mainland and outlying islands, the occurrence in the outlying islands differs in relation to the size and remoteness of islands. 4. The two species coexisting in an outlying small island are those which are markedly dissimilar in their body sizes and ecology. The body size ratios of larger to smaller species are more than 1.4, 1.8, 3.4 in the wing length, culmen length and body weight, respectively. 5. The nonexistent combinations such as D. leucotos/D. major, P. awokera/D. leucotos or P. awokera/D. major are considered to be prevented from occurring by the ecological incompatibility between the two species, not by the absence of a chance to meet each other. 6. Triplet-type combinations are also those which are effective in reducing the competition to a minimum in an island.
Stomach contents from a total of 439 Short-tailed Shearwaters taken at 94 stations in the Okhotsk Sea, North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during the summer, 1970-1978, were examined in order to determine the food and feeding habits of this seabird. The diet for Short-tailed Shearwaters varied according to sea area. Overall it consisted mainly of small-sized organisms such as larval and juvenile fish and squid, euphausiids, amphipods, copepods, shrimp, and Thecosomata, all of which are usually abundant in the surface layer of the pelagic environment. The occurrence of the herbivorous copepod, Calanus cristatus (Copepodite V stage), in some stomach samples suggests that the Short-tailed Shearwater sometimes also depends upon zooplankton of lower trophic levels. Based on the results of this study the feeding biotope of the Short-tailed Shearwater, when wintering in the Subarctic Pacific Region, demonstrates high adaptability in prey and pelagic environment. These features enable this species to attain an immense population size in the Northern Hemisphere.
The range of the Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus is widespread throughout in the tropic and subtropic regions of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans and, however, the species was regarded as a rare straggler in Japan. We discovered the breeding of the Bridled Tern on Nakanokami-shima, Sakishima Archipelago southernmost district of Japan during our stay for ringing sea-birds from 28 to 30 June 1980. Nakanokamishima, another common vernacular name Uganjima, is situated at 24°11'N, 123°34'E, 15km SW of Iriomote-jima and small (length c. 1800m, width c. 300m, alt. 102m) uninhabited island. Here is one of famous sea-birds islands of Japan, yet the conservation is so poor that the sea-birds colonies are often destroyed by Formosan who steal the eggs for food. The breedings of Calonectris leucomelas, Sula leucogaster, Sula sula, Sterna fuscata and Anous stolidus have been known here. We observed the Bridled Terns at three areas, A, B and C, of the island (Fig. 1) and it seemed that all of them were breeding. The areas A and B were near the shore-line, and large rocks fallen from steep slope heaped up all over there. We could count about 60 pairs of the Bridled Terns at the area A (c. 30 × 100msq.), and only the species were breeding in the colony. In the area B, about half of the area A, the Bridled and Sooty Terns were settled, and a number of the Bridled Terns were about 20 pairs. The area C was rocky place near west end of narrow ridge of the island, and several pairs were breeding. We searched the breeding status of the Bridled Tern a little intensively in the colony of area A. All ten clutches found there contained one egg, like in other foreign colonies. Their eggs were laid on either inner floor or open flat surface of the rocks more or less covered with large rocks (Photographs 1 and 2 of Plate 6). As described by Warham (1958), the Bridled Tern colonies on Nakanokami-shima were much smaller than those of the Sooty Tern, and most of the Bridled Terns were incubating while all of the Sooty Terns were taking care of their chicks. Two species of Sterna and one Anous breeding on the island were apparently segregated from their nest-sites. The Sooty Tern was most numerous and some thousands of pairs bred. Most of them made a colony on the plateau of short grass on the center of the island. On the other hand, the Bridled Tern selected such rocky place as mentioned above. The Common Noddy Anous stolidus settled on the ledge. Analizing other data after this discovery, it became known to us that probably the Bridled Tern had bred Nakanokami-shima and Hamano-shima, 5km NW of Taketomi-jima, few years ago, and that the species might be breeding on Hude-Rock, 12km NE of Seto-zaki, Miyako-jima.
Dr. Nagamichi Kuroda died on 16th April 1978. He was known as a bird skin collector before the World War II. Unfortunately, nearly all of his collection (about 13, 000 skins) was destroyed by the war in 1945. After the war, he collected bird skins again. New Kuroda Collection was donated to the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology by Mrs. Shigeko Kuroda in 1980. This new Kuroda Collection includes 848 skins (468 non-passerines and 380 passerines) and 2 specimens of Tadorna cristata (_??_ & _??_). This report is a list of type specimens and non-passerines of new Kuroda Collection.
A breakage of a new telephone pole located in Irihirose-mura in Kitauonuma-gun in Niigata Prefecture occurred on September 30, 1980. The cause of this breakage has been investigated: on the new telephone pole approximately 7 meters above the ground, a nesting hole whose caliber is 8cm was bored, and feathers of Green Woodpeckers and hair of racoon dog and of rabbit were found inside the nesting hole. Consequently, it made clear that the new telephone pole breakage was due to the Green Woodpeckers' behaviour.