This paper was first planned in 1971 and was written in 1975 (marking the author's age of 60th) to compare avian and mammalian "societies", based on socio-ecological and -ethological analyses, independently of Wilson's "Sociobiology" (1975); with the following contents: I "Animal sociology" 1. Animal societies: its two viewpoints a. Phenotypic sociology b. Functional sociology 2. Animal societies: its functional analysis 3. Animal societies: its evolution a. Origin and functional evolution b. Phenotypic evolution II. Avian and mammalian societies 1. Comparative characteristics 2. Evolutionary retrospects 3. Distributional property 4. Life diversification a. Mammalian b. Avian 5. Behavioral diversification a. Brain structure b. Brain function c. Instincts and intelligence b. Instinctive grades: 1) Physiological (individual or maintenance) behaviors 2) Social behaviors (a) Instinctive reflex beh. (= IRM) (Primary inst. beh.) b) Instinctive responding beh. (Secondary inst. beh.) c) Mental instinct-controlling beh. (Tertiary inst. beh.) d) Psychological reflex beh. (Spiritual shock beh.) e) Mental instinct-suppressing beh. (reductive inst. beh.) f) Learning g) Imprinting h) Tool-using i) Coopreative behavior III. Social development 1. Flock-vs family-base life 2. Dominance and leadership 3. Individual and population (groups) 4. Group-making property a. Avian group life: 1) Family group 2) Areal group 3) Group territory 4) Colony b. Mammalian group life c. Human group life 5. On group selection IV. Postscript The avian and mammalian societies, despite common general physiology, have evolved toward basically "aerial-diurnal" and "terrestrial-nocturnal" contrasted lives. The avian society is aberrantly specialized and could be neglected from the quadrupedal evolutionary line leading to mammalian society, but the avian flock-based, monogamous social structure with sexual cooperative division of work and the mammalian mother-filial family-based, polygynous, despotic and graded social structure, are compounded in the human society, which, beside this biological social base, is put under artificial restraint and constraint of laws, religions, ideologies of nations (or races). With this contradictions, the world human societies inevitably contiune their cooperative efforts, but with endless competition.
1) The Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonica was studied on Miyake Island (Izu Islands) in winter to record agonistic behaviour and associated behaviour. 2) The winter population consisted of the island race Z. j. stejnegeri and the mainland race Z. j. japonica (about 9%), distinguishable in size and weight. Both races exhibited agonistic behaviour at sources of concentrated food supply, and in territorial contexts, with motor patterns similar to those known for other species of Zosterops. Wing fluttering, supplanting with bill clattering and head turning, which are components of aggressive behaviour unique to the genus Zosterops, have now been observed in Z. japonica. 3) Foraging flock size, feeding habits and prey hunting behaviour were also typical of Zosterops, with generalized food niche and a large repertoire of foraging behaviour. 4) The frequency of wing flicking was related to restlessness and not to dominance behaviour. 5) Dominance classes of birds, based on the proportion of wins in total aggressive encounters in which birds were observed, reflected their ranks in a hierarchy derived from individual relatoins. Dominace classes were not related to any of the size attributes measured. Some small mainland birds were dominant over large island birds.
The present experiment was conducted by placing 15 non-migratory Passer montanus saturatus in three chambers whose temperatures were 23°C, 15°C and 8°C, respectively. Each chamber was illuminated by two 15-Watt fluorescent lamps. The period of light increrased gradually from 9 hours to 15 hours, and then decreased from 15 hours to 9 hours during the period of this experiment from may through December in 1977. Body weights of the bird groups in three chambers gradually increased from September and reached their high points in November and December. The activity movemrnt of the bird groups exposed to a temperature of 23°C in the period of light was high throughout the experiment, especially in August and September, which may be considered to be a real breeding activity. The activity movement of the bird group exposed to a temperature of 8°C in the period of light increased only in June and gradually decreased from July to December. No noticeabe change has been found in the activity movement of the bird group exposed to a temperature of 15°C in the period of light. The activity movement of these three bird groups exposed to temperatures 23°C, 15°C and 8°C in the period of darkness was very slight, and no remarkable night activity, Zugunruhe, was found in the three bird groups of P. m. saturatus throughout the experiment.