山階鳥類研究所研究報告
Online ISSN : 1883-3659
Print ISSN : 0044-0183
ISSN-L : 0044-0183
13 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の3件中1~3を表示しています
  • 黒田 長久
    1981 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 1-59
    発行日: 1981/01/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper was first planned in 1971 and was written in 1975 (marking the author's age of 60th) to compare avian and mammalian "societies", based on socio-ecological and -ethological analyses, independently of Wilson's "Sociobiology" (1975); with the following contents:
    I "Animal sociology"
    1. Animal societies: its two viewpoints
    a. Phenotypic sociology b. Functional sociology
    2. Animal societies: its functional analysis
    3. Animal societies: its evolution
    a. Origin and functional evolution b. Phenotypic evolution
    II. Avian and mammalian societies
    1. Comparative characteristics
    2. Evolutionary retrospects
    3. Distributional property
    4. Life diversification
    a. Mammalian b. Avian
    5. Behavioral diversification
    a. Brain structure b. Brain function c. Instincts and intelligence b. Instinctive grades: 1) Physiological (individual or maintenance) behaviors 2) Social behaviors (a) Instinctive reflex beh. (= IRM) (Primary inst. beh.) b) Instinctive responding beh. (Secondary inst. beh.) c) Mental instinct-controlling beh. (Tertiary inst. beh.) d) Psychological reflex beh. (Spiritual shock beh.) e) Mental instinct-suppressing beh. (reductive inst. beh.) f) Learning g) Imprinting h) Tool-using i) Coopreative behavior
    III. Social development
    1. Flock-vs family-base life
    2. Dominance and leadership
    3. Individual and population (groups)
    4. Group-making property
    a. Avian group life: 1) Family group 2) Areal group 3) Group territory 4) Colony
    b. Mammalian group life c. Human group life
    5. On group selection
    IV. Postscript
    The avian and mammalian societies, despite common general physiology, have evolved toward basically "aerial-diurnal" and "terrestrial-nocturnal" contrasted lives.
    The avian society is aberrantly specialized and could be neglected from the quadrupedal evolutionary line leading to mammalian society, but the avian flock-based, monogamous social structure with sexual cooperative division of work and the mammalian mother-filial family-based, polygynous, despotic and graded social structure, are compounded in the human society, which, beside this biological social base, is put under artificial restraint and constraint of laws, religions, ideologies of nations (or races). With this contradictions, the world human societies inevitably contiune their cooperative efforts, but with endless competition.
  • 橘川 次郎, 柿澤 亮三
    1981 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 60-70
    発行日: 1981/01/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1) The Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonica was studied on Miyake Island (Izu Islands) in winter to record agonistic behaviour and associated behaviour.
    2) The winter population consisted of the island race Z. j. stejnegeri and the mainland race Z. j. japonica (about 9%), distinguishable in size and weight. Both races exhibited agonistic behaviour at sources of concentrated food supply, and in territorial contexts, with motor patterns similar to those known for other species of Zosterops. Wing fluttering, supplanting with bill clattering and head turning, which are components of aggressive behaviour unique to the genus Zosterops, have now been observed in Z. japonica.
    3) Foraging flock size, feeding habits and prey hunting behaviour were also typical of Zosterops, with generalized food niche and a large repertoire of foraging behaviour.
    4) The frequency of wing flicking was related to restlessness and not to dominance behaviour.
    5) Dominance classes of birds, based on the proportion of wins in total aggressive encounters in which birds were observed, reflected their ranks in a hierarchy derived from individual relatoins. Dominace classes were not related to any of the size attributes measured. Some small mainland birds were dominant over large island birds.
  • 中村 司, 織田 俊雄
    1981 年 13 巻 1 号 p. 71-78
    発行日: 1981/01/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    本論文は鳥類の渡りと日照や温度との関係を調べるのが主な目的であるが,今回は渡り鳥の特性を知るため,渡りをしないスズメを材料として実験を行い,渡り鳥と比較することにした。
    まず23°,15°,8°Cに調節した3つの低温恒温器に各々5羽ずつ計15羽を入れ,照明は15ワットの螢光燈を2個づつつけて行った。日照時間はいずれも9時間から15時間まで延長し,引きつづいて15時間から9時間まで短縮した。実験は5月から12月まで継続した。
    まず体重では3つのグループとも11,12月が最も上昇した。次に照明時における活動をみると23°Cのグループは一般に盛んであるが,特に8月と9月が非常に高く,8°Cのグループでは6月にやや高く,他は低くなっている。また15°Cではあまり目立った変化はなかった。これら照明時の活動は,日照時間が15時間に達していることから,野外における繁殖の為の活動に匹敵するものと考えられる。
    次に暗黒時の活動では3つのグループともカシラダカやオオジュリンなどでみられる渡りの衝動(Zugunruhe)による夜間活動はほとんどあらわれなかった。
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