A nest of the Short-tailed Bush Warbler, Cettia squameiceps, was found again on 14 June in 1984, in the Red Pine, Pinus densiflora forest at Tomida (altitude ca. 700m), Takagi-mura, Shimoina-gun, Nagano Prefecture. Four adult warblers simultaneously attended the nest. The nest visits of each of 4 banded birds were observed for 2, 284 bird-minutes for 5 days. The food contribution of a helper of this species was very small although a helper sang well. We found a second instance of helping at the nest of this species since our discovery in 1981. The possibility that cooperative breeding occurs more or less regularly in this species is proposed.
The feeding rate, food size, energy intake and nutrient intake were studied for nestlings of the Varied Tit (Parus varius) and the Great Tit (Parus major) living in evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minamata, southern Kyushu, Japan. The frequency of daily feeding visit was around 100 times for both species. The diets of the two species were similar in general; feeding on lepidopteran larvae, moths, spiders and Orthoptera. The Varied Tit preferred much smaller prey than the Great Tit. The energy ingested was not so different, but the assimilation rate of the Varied Tit was lower because of feeding on many prey items with hard body parts like moths, spiders and Orthoptera. Assimilated energy was almost the same for the two species. Nutrient analysis revealed that lepidopteran larvae contain less nitrogen than other prey items. The Varied Tit ingested more nitrogen than the Great Tit. The difference in quality of foods may correspond to that of clutch size between the two species.
The reproduction of the Japanese Wagtail, Motacilla grandis, was studied from view points of habitats and breeding systems in Mito, Ibaraki Pref., central Japan. The start and end of egg laying may depend on food supply, predation pressure and weather. The seasonal trend of cultch size was of peak type. This clutch size variation may be positively correlated with the food availability for young. The difference in breeding success between riverside and suburban habitats was mainly caused by the predation and river swell, both hatching success and fledging success being higher in the suburban habitat than in the river side habitat. These higher successes in the suburban habitat appear to cause the recent increasing utilization of the habitat by Japanese Wagtail. The Japanese Wagtail occasionally took the bigynous breeding, in spite of disadvantages due to increases in nestling starvation and unfertilized eggs in the bigyny. The present study revealed that the good territory with less predations and less damages due to the external forces such as river swell could enable to establish the bigyny by canceling the disadvantages attached to the bigyny.
The effects of bursectomy on blood glucose, adrenocortical and adrenomedullary activities were tested in White Leghorn chicken. It has been shown that bursectomised chicken exhibited consistent hyperglycemia on the 10th day, 17th day, and the 24th day after the bursectomy. On these days, total catecholamine in bursectomied chicken increased. Bursectomy may have caused a higher corticosterone synthesis and storage in the bursectomised chicken on the 10th day after bursectomy, and corticosterone release on the 17th and the 24th days after bursectomy. From this study, it can be inferred that hyperglycemia in bursectomised chicken on the 17th and the 24th days is due to the relasese of corticosterone. However, hyperglycemia in bursectomised chicken on the 10th day is difficult to explain.
The mortality survey of Short-tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris along with Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus and Streaked Shearwater Calonectris leucomelas was carried out along 2km transect on Shiinauchihama beach in Chiba Prefecture in springs during 1976 and 1982. The peak mortality of Short-tailed Shearwater appeared from late May to early June every year. The dead bird density of Short-tailed Shearwater was low (12.3 ± 5.72(SD)/km, n=6) in 1976, and 1978-1982. Although a high mortality (44.5/km) occurred in 1977, it was due to an accidental local gale, while the mortality was extremely high (80/km) in 1974-1975. Therefore the countrywide mass mortality did not occur between 1976 and 1982. In the other two species, the mortality peak was not recognized and the mortality densities were lower than that of Short-tailed Shearwater through the period.
The line transect censuses within the range of 25m on both sides of six routes were carried out in two forests in Tanagawa, Osaka Prefecture, in 1984. One is the Environmental Green Area of Tanagawa II Power Station, which composed mainly of plantation and uncut natural forest leftover patchily. The other is the secondary natural forest adjacently near by the station. A total of 42 species (9 orders 24 families) of birds were observed. There was no difference observed in the species composition between Green Area and natural forest. But in Green Area, more numbers of species were observed in the leftover forest, and only a few species occurred in the plantation forest. While so many species of birds live in natural and the leftover forest, no special species live in the plantation forest, it is considered that avifauna is extending into the plantation from natural forests. Large-sized, groundpecking species (Columba livia, Turdus pallidus and T. naumanni) were observed abundantly in the plantation forest. This may be due to the less coverage of the forest floor.
I analyzed the several acoustic sounds of Japanese Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon which is one of the species in danger of extermination in the world, by means of sound spectrograph (Rion SG-07). The acoutic sounds of so-called Kinchan (female) in the cage (Toki Hogo Center, Sado, Niigata Pref. Japan) and of the breeding one in China were compared with several sonagrams shown by the pattern of 7.2 second (2.5KHz). Dement'ev (1969) reported that voice of Japanese Crested Ibis resembles croaking of Raven, but it was, in fact, much louder, and it may be expressed as "ka-ga, ka-ga, ka-ga" and sometimes as "kag, kag, kag". In this study, I recorded three kinds of different sonagrams of Kinchan (Kwá, kwáu and Kwá-n) and four kinds of sonagrams in China (Kwá, kwa-u, Kwan and Kwá-n). The sonagrams of Kwa-n in Kinchan and those in China are said to be similar sounds, but it is clear that both sonagrams are somewhat different from each other.
On 22 September 1982, a Pallas's Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus was obtained in the Sea of Japan off the coast of Iwanai in Hokkaido. In our country this species has only been observed on 21 April 1964 on Tsunoshima Island in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The speciman in this short comunication is classified to Phylloscopus proregulus. We consider that the main migration route of this subspecies is formed in the inside of the eastern Asia including the coastal area. The Pallas's Warbler obtained seemed to be strayed from the main migration route to sea by a strong wind from the low pressure.
A Parakeet Auklet Cychlorrhynchus psittacula was protected at Kasiwazaki City on December 27, 1984 and was accommodated to Bird Rescue Center of Maki-Machi, Niigata Prefectur. Four days later, it was dead. This is the second record of this species in Niigata Prefecture.