By means of protein electrophoresis of 26 loci, genetic variation and differentiation of 42 species belonging to 17 genera in the Estrildidae were analysed. A genealogic dendrogram was constructed by the UPGMA method, using the values of the genetic distances between the species of the Estrildidae. Intra-specific genetic variation was detected in 26 out of 42 species examined. The average observed heterozygosity of all the species examined was as low as 0.098. The values of genetic differentiation calculated as genetic distance averaged 0.193 at the species level and 0.397 at the generic levels, which were somewhat higher average values than normal amongs birds. The Estrildidae could be divided into two main groups, the Estrildinae and the Lonchurinae. Unlike the current accepted classification, this method proved Amadina and Lonchura pectoralis to be an old separately differentiated group. The Estrildinae is comprised of three groups, the Estrildi, Erythruri, and Amadini, while the Lonchurinae consists of the Poephili, Lonchuri, and Heteromunii. The basic taxonomic arrangement of genera and species agreed with current classification. Within each group, the average inter-specific genetic distance was 0.304 among African Estrildi as against 0.153 for Australasian Lonchuri. This reflects the older specific differentiation of the former group relative to the latter. These results give support to the hypothetical African origin of the Estrildidae with later dispersal to Asia and Australasia.
Techniques of aging Short-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) were studied in relation to eleven aspects of skull ossification. It was found that by means of these features of the skull and the degree of ossification, the nestling, fledgeling and adult stages of Short-tailed Shearwaters could be distinguished.
During the period from October 1971 to March 1985, 2654 birds of 166 species were injured and brought for medical treatment to the Niigata Prefectural Government Bird Hospital. In order to get the official permission for making skins, 1727 birds of 98 species were reported as found dead from April 1978 to March 1985. Among these birds, 1411 individuals of 21 species were birds of prey (FALCONIFORMES and STRIGIFORMES). Here the species of birds of prey, the localities where were found in Niigata Prefecture, and the causes of death are reported.