While it is probable that Common kingfishers Alcedo atthis used to be found in central Tokyo, they have for long been found only in the outskirts of the city. However, recently they have appeared in many locations near the center of the city. We observed their breeding at the Akasaka Imperial Grounds in the center of Tokyo. In the first brood, four young were observed to fledge on May 20, and in the second, five young fledglings were confirmed on July 14 and 15. Some aspects of breeding behaviour of the parents are described.
Four Whistling Swans were satellite tracked from Lake Kuccharo, northernmost Japan, to eastern Siberia, the USSR, from April 10 to May 26, 1990. A transmitter, 112mm×35mm×19mm in size and 83g in weight, was attached to the back (three individuals) or neck (one individual) of the swans. A total of 116 location data were obtained. The four swans went north along Sakhalin, and stayed around the mouth of Amur River or in northern Sakhalin for several days to nearly a month. In three of the four swans, the battery exhausted around the mouth of the Amur River or in northern Sakhalin, but one swan was successfully tracked to the breeding ground in tundra. The life of the batteries was expected to be two months but was in fact 30-46 days. The shorter duration may be due to long exposure to cold weather in northern areas.
Foraging behaviour of two individuals of the endangered Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer was studied for 1.5h. The birds foraged actively on an extensive intertidal mudflat during the autumn migration. Although keeping mutual distances of 5-20m, rarely more, the birds obviously stayed together all the time. Prey taken were crabs Macrophthalmus japonicus of an estimated carapace width of 15-20mm. Most crabs retreated in the mud as soon a bird approached, but probing for crabs was not observed. The birds located their prey by eye and captured them via runs or flights. On average 1.2 crabs were taken per 5min, representing 0.53g ADW, giving a consumption of 0.13g ADW per minute of active foraging.