The oxygen consumption of fasting Leach's Storm-petrels Oceanodroma leucorhoa was measured in captivity with a metabolic chamber at nest burrow temperature (16°C). The average mass-specific oxygen consumption of incubating birds (2.84ml/g/h at night and 2.10ml/g/h in day) was lower than that of chick rearing birds (3.31ml/g/h at night and 2.98ml/g/h in day). Three days of fasting did not affect mass-specific oxygen consumption. At each breeding stage mass-specific oxygen consumption was higher at night than during the day (1.1-1.3 times). In the wild, body mass of incubating birds (45.7±2.9 SDg) was greater than those rearing chicks (43.1±2.7 SDg). It appeared that incubating birds may tolerate fasting for the 3 day incubation spell by reducing resting metabolic rate and spending metabolic energy on body fat reserves.
The Black-footed Albatross (Diomedea nigripes) now breeds on eleven islands in the eastern North Pacific and on five islands in the western North Pacific. The breeding population of the eastern North Pacific is slightly declining, but that of the western North Pacific is increasing. The total population in the North Pacific is estimated to be 200, 000, of which 50, 000 are breeding birds. This population size is very small compared with the congener Laysan Albatross (D. immutabilis), which has a total population of 2, 500, 000 birds. On Torishima, which has the largest breeding population of Black-footed Albatrosses in the western North Pacific, the Black-foots have increased in number, since a new colony was built on the island during the 1988/89 breeding season. The numbers of fledged chicks in each breeding season were 1 in 1988/89, 5 in 1989/90, 84 in 1992/93, 55 in 1993/94, 125 in 1994/95, and 158 in 1995/96. In addition to the conservation of Short-tailed Albatrosses (D. albatrus), now successfully established on Torishima, multi-faceted protective programs are also planned for other breeding seabirds of this island. The programs should include such projects as: re-establishment of colonies of the Laysan Albatross and Tristram's Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma tristrami), elimination of introduced animals, vegetation improvement, control of soil erosion at seabird nesting sites, and establishing a protected sea area around the island.
An individual of subspecies of Snow Goose, Anser caerulescens atlanticus, was first observed in March and April 1994, and continued to be observed in November 1995, March and November 1996, and March 1997 in central and eastern Hokkaido, Japan. This bird moved with flocks of Whitefronted Goose Anser albifrons or Middendorf's Bean Goose Anser fabalis middendorffii.