山階鳥類研究所研究報告
Online ISSN : 1883-3659
Print ISSN : 0044-0183
ISSN-L : 0044-0183
3 巻 , 5 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
  • 浦本 昌紀
    1963 年 3 巻 5 号 p. 303-310
    発行日: 1963/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this year ringing totals were 4, 898 (89spp.) and grand totals were summed up to 7, 219 birds (102spp.). Recoveries reported in this year amounted to 22 birds (13spp.), which included a Turnstone from Arctic coast in East Siberia and a Common Snipe from Philippine.
    During this year 9 birds (5spp.) ringed in abroad were reported to the Institute and these birds were listed in Appendix I. A special project for the study of Short-tailed Albatross was continued and 10 chicks (and 13 chicks of Black-footed Albatross) were ringed by the U. S. rings.
  • 黒田 長久
    1963 年 3 巻 5 号 p. 311-333
    発行日: 1963/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. With the interest to find out the adaptive influence of ecological factors to be reflected in the egg constitution, the eggs of a few species of herons, sea birds as well as some domesticated birds were compared (also referring the known data given by Romanoffs 1949).
    2. Chemical constitution was analysed at Japan Oil and Vitamin Inspection Institute, Tokyo.
    3. Eggs of wild birds used were those of the following species: Egretta garzetta and Nycticorax nycticorax (Shinhama colony, Chiba), Larus crassirostris, Uria aalge and Cerorhinca monocerata (Teuri I., Hokkaido) and Calonectris leucomelas (Toshima, Izu Is. Eggs of this species of great interest (Nice 1962) were unfortunately too advanced for chemical analysis).
    4. A devise for field egg-inspection by means of a long-type cup (of ice-cream) lined inside with silver paper (for strong light reflection), a flashlight (electric torch) and black cloth to work under, is described and by this test the fresh unincubated eggs could be selected. For inspection of thick and colored shelled eggs perfect darkness was necessary.
    5. Yolk color difference was noticed between Sooty Tern (orange) and Noddy (yellow) (Marcus I., Kuroda 1954), among Larus crassirostris (orange), Uria aalge, Synthliboramphus Cerorhinca (yellow) and Cepphus carbo (orange) breeding on Teuri I., and Calonectris (yellow) of Toshima, and between Egretta garzetta (red) and Nycticorax (yellow) of a same colony. It was suggested that fish eaters have yellow yolks, while crustacean food seems to be responsible for orange or even red yolk according to the amount ingested. However, difference in Sooty Tern and Noddy, both eating squids there, might have involved some other genetic factor.
    6. The relative yolk weight % for entire egg and egg white is higher in precocial than in altricial birds and in smaller than in larger eggs of the birds of same habit (Romanoffs). The present data support this: the yolk % was low in altricial (semi-altricial by Nice) herons and intermediate in semi-precocial gull, murre and the puffin (Cerorhinca). But, the yolk amount relative to albumen was greater in larger goose eggs than in smaller duck eggs and in larger murre eggs than in smaller puffin eggs. This may reflect the stronger conditions at hatching of goose and murre chicks compared with those of duck and puffin respectively.
    7. The shell weight % for entire egg is larger in precocial than altricial, and in larger than smaller birds. The shell is thicker in precocial birds, because chicks hatch in stronger condition (Romanoffs). The thick-shelled Guinea Fowl egg should reflect the adaptation of heat prevention devise for they are laid on tropical dryland, while the shell thickness is adaptively different by the murre populations breeding on rough or smooth rocks (Kartaschew) and the eggs of Teuri population belonged to the thick-shelled type; thickest at the pointed end on which the egg rolls.
    8. The amount of water is higher in the eggs of altricial than precocial birds (least so in ducks and geese (Romanoffs)), in which the solid portion is greater. The present data on heron eggs coincided with the reported amount of altricial song birds and pigeons. In the semi-precocial gull and alcids, eggs had precocial type amount of yolk water and rather altricial type amount of egg white water (if Romanoffs' data are referred), thus being intermediate as a whole.
    9. The thin-shelled heron eggs were decomposed so soon as three days after having been kept in normal refrigerater. Gull and murre eggs were not affected after 53 days kept in refrigerator, while after 89 days the larger murre egg with extremely thick shell still remained in good shape inspite of the gull egg had been entirely decomposed by this time.
  • 中村 登流
    1963 年 3 巻 5 号 p. 334-357_1
    発行日: 1963/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1 この研究は日本中部の霧ケ峯山地草原における鳥類の蕃殖期の群集構造をあきらかにしようとしたものである。
    2 線的調査は1961年から1963年の間に,方形区調査は500m四方の範囲で1963年に行った。また各種のnicheをあきらかにするため営巣やヒナの食物の調査も行った。
    3線的調査によるとホオアカは全面的によく分布し100mあたり0.3~0.4番という数値を示した。ノビタキもよく分散し100mにつき0.3~0.7番という値を示す。コヨシキリも0.3~1.2番であるが,ホオアカ,ノビタキよりも偏在がいちじるしい。
    4 凹地では最低地の丈高草群にコヨシキリが見られ,その両側にノビタキがあらわれ,更にその両側へノビタキと一部重複しながらホオアカが出現する。
    5 コジュリンの分布は極限している。
    6 方形区調査によると,ホオアカはよく全面を被い,ノビタキ,コヨシキリ,コジュリンはいずれも50%以下である。ノビタキは斜面を中心に,コヨシキリは丈高草群にそれぞれコロニイ状に偏在している。
    7 占有面積はコジュリン-ホオアカ-ノビタキ-コヨシキリの順に小さくなる。
    8 営巣様式はコジュリン,ホオアカがよく似ていて地表面上に草本の根元をえらび,ノビタキは地面の凹部にうめこみ土塊などの被いを持っている,コヨシキリは大形多年生草に地上20~50cmにつくる。
    9 蕃殖期にはずれがあり1963年にはノビタキ-コジュリン-ホオアカ-コヨシキリの順に進行した。
    10 ヒナの食物は,いずれも鱗翅類幼虫を与えている一方,ノビタキは双翅類成虫を多く与え,ホオアカ,コジュリンでは鱗翅類成虫,直翅類,クモ類を与え,コヨシキリは直翅類を多く与えている。
    11 平面的な分布域しか持ち得ない草原ではコジュリン,ホオアカの丈低草群要素,ノビタキの荒地要素,コヨシキリの丈高草群要素をわかってとっており,そこに山地草原鳥類の群集構造がある。
  • 山本 弘
    1963 年 3 巻 5 号 p. 358-362
    発行日: 1963/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Based on 20 years observation made at Miyako, northern Honshiu, and over 1.000 photographs, the confusing young plumages of L. argentatus, L. schistisagus, L. glaucescens and L. hyperboreus were analysed comparatively. Chief points discussed are bill-shape, plumage pattern and general features which are shown in tables, figures and photographs. Although there are large individual and age variations in the markings and body size, the author could specify the species-specific patterns and the bill-shape was a good specific character.
    A summary of molting of gulls is given by editor from Dwight (1925).
  • 黒田 長久
    1963 年 3 巻 5 号 p. 363-383
    発行日: 1963/12/31
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1963年5月27~31日の間,天然記念物北海道羽幌大字天売の海鳥蕃殖地を観察した。これは化学分析のための卵の採取を目的としたが,文化財保護委員会記念物課の御依頼もあったので一般観察も努めて行った。卵採取の許可を与えられた北海道社会教育課文化財保護委員会,そのための御配慮を得た文部省記念物課吉川需氏に感謝の意を表し,現地で案内の労をとられ種々知見を教示された監視員八谷新五郎氏の御協力を心から感謝する。また,植物同定をお願いした山崎敬博士(東大理植),大井次三郎博士(国立科博)及び観察談を御報告下さった井上恒也氏(日本画家,鳥類研究家)に,深く御礼の意を表する。
  • 1963 年 3 巻 5 号 p. 390
    発行日: 1963年
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
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