The reported breeding places of Diomedea albatrus have been: 1. Torishima, Izu Is., 2. Some islands of the Bonin Is., 3. Kobisho, Senkaku Is., 4. Agincourt I. and 5. Pescadores I. The environmental conditions common to these breeding islands are: a) Safety especially from man, being non-inhabited islands or nearly so and very hard to access. They have however not abandoned Torishima after a long lasted slaughter. b) Coasts are steep cliffs of more than 5 meters. c) Highest altitudes are less than 200m (but 400m at Torishima) and the islands are alway flat type, with the area of less than 5 square km. d) No, or few tall trees at the most and without forest on any of the islands. e) Often with dense grass less than two meters high and rather extensive sandy slope existing among them. f) The breeding islands are scatterd in subtropical belt within 119°-145° E, 24°-30° N. g) These islands are within or adjacent to the warm currents and they feed on fishes of these currents. The meteorologically, these islands are in a temperature zone with average more than 12°C and less than 28°C, humidity more than 70% (though this preference is doubtful), rainfall less than 180mm which is relatively less than in other subtropical islands, while fine-cloudy ratio is considered of little significance. The above islands are in the zone of seasonal winds, with the velocity frequently more than 10m/sec., blowing from the Asian continent with prevailing NE local winds, rather than NW. These winds may also influence the movements and distributions of food fishes, as well as aiding the leaving and arriving of the albatrosses of the islands. Special descriptions of the environments of Torishima where D. albatrus and D. nigripes are segregated by habitat (the former in grassy and the latter on sandy places) are given. They arrive Torishima in October-November and leave in April-May. In the autumn, the NE winds become prevailed from E. Asiatic High and breeding islands are included in the temperature belt of average 23°-26°C (Fig. 3, a). In the spring, North Pacific High becomes prevailed causing the SW winds and the breeding islands are in the belt of 23°-25°C (Fig. 3, b). Their pelagic movements and migrations should also be correlated with such oceanic winds and temperatures.
1. The molting to adult plumage of three hand raised young Gray Starlings Sturnus cineraceus was observed. 2. The plumage of the young is first grayish and turns brownish or even rustic before molting begins, which is about 40 day after hatching and about 20 days after leaving the nest. 3. The wing quills of both sides are usually shed at the same time. 4. The primaries molt from innermost (I) to outer ones, and the last one (IX) was shed 84 days after the first primary (in bird A). Possibly normal molting intervals were: more or less a week for I-II, III-IV, IV-V, V-VI, (VI-VII on one side) and about two weeks for II-III and (VI-VII on one side), VII-VIII and VIII-IX. 5. The maximum body weights (measured in the evening) markedly increased before the molting of primaries, but minimum body weights (measured in the early morning) were rather constant. Thus the increased body weights have possibly been used for growing new quills (see Fig. 2). 6. In the female observed which was rather ill-nourished, remolting of the primaries began in the regular sequence (with an overlap of the first and second molting). The intervals from the first molting of I primary to its second molting were 52 (left) and 54 (right) days. 7. primaries was unsheathed after about a week of shedding and was completely grown in about 20 days. The rates of growth of unsheathed feathers were average 0.2mm per hour and 4-5mm per day. 8. The primary coverts molted 2-8 days after the primaries with which they are growing together. 9. The bustard wing molted during the later part of the molting period of the primaries. 10. The molting of secondaries occurred 35-40 days after the shedding of I-primary and during the molting of V, VI primaries. Molting proceeds slowly from inner to outer secondaries, with the intervals of about 20 days (though within 10 days between III-IV) in an observed case, and two months from the molting of I-secondary to V-secondary. 11. The tertiaries were shed after the molting of I-secondary, in a sequence of II-III-I, the interval having been 21 days for II-III and 10 days for III-I. 12. The greater wing-coverts molted at the same time and irregularly, with no relation with the secondaries. 13. The tail molt was commenced by the 4 central feathers and proceeded to outer ones. 14. The main molting of body plumage began about 70 days after hatching and 30 days after the shedding of I-primary, first on the flanks and lower back. The molting of the crown to fore-neck and upper scapulars delayed most. The body molting was completed at about 120 days after hatching, but the last primary and secondary were completed at 130 and 140-150 days after hatching. 15. No marked difference was noticed in the speed of molting by early (early July) and later (early August) young birds in captivity.
The external morphology of avian kidney was compared by examining 39 species of 17 Orders of birds. The kidney type was characteristic by Orders, but also differed among families adaptively according to the pelvis type which is adapted to a particular mode of life or food habit. In a few cases, the kidney type showed apparent taxonomic significance supporting the results otherwise reached (such as osteology). Among the Passeres examined, starlings showed slight difference of kidney type from general one and the Sylviidae (Acrocephalus, Locustella) had definitely different narrow type as the result of laterally compressed pelvic girdle adapted to live in the thickets and reeds. Among Anseres, the resemblance showed by Bucephala and Mergellus and their intermediate type between Anas and Mergus are of interest in supporting general taxonomic opinion. The phylogenetic affinity between Sphenisci and Tubinares generally believed was also suggested from their kidney types. On the other hand, Fregata and Sula of the same Order, but entirely different in habit (thus different in pelvis type) had quite different type of kidney but Sula resembled Nannopterum, a cormorant, in their long type. The kidney varied from very simple and possibly really primitive type, only with anterior and posterior (in kingfisher Ceryle almost no division) lobes to complicated and possibly advanced one with middle and lateral lobes, but several weighing results suggested that the kidney occupies more or less 1% of the body weight (fat excluded) probably similarly in large and smaller birds. But, it might be speculated (partly from the result of the present study) that sea birds may have relatively more voluminous kidney and the basic kidney function might supplement the function of salt glands. In Cygnus the kidney was peculiar in being divided into numerous small lobes and the general size was not voluminous for the bird. Thus in large flying birds the kidney may split to pieces to augment the surface and not the volume thus keeping the body light. The division of anterior, middle, lateral and posterior lobes in general birds may also be the result of such an adaptive devise.
After the I. O. C at Ithaca, 1962, the writer accompanied Dr. O. L. Austin, Jr. to his home in Gainesville, Florida and had a rare privilege to take part in his Sooty Tern banding project on the Dry Tortugas Is. which was made in cooperation with the Florida Audubon Society (Mr. C. R. Mason) and Evergrades National Park (Dr. W. C. Robinson, Jr.), July 11-15. Observations of birds in Florida and a special note on this tern banding are given. The chicks were gathered to the end of wire net trap and the adult birds were easily caught (especially in the evening when they feed the young) by Japanese mist nets. Thus 3, 941 adults and 8, 700 chicks of the Sooty Tern, 84 adults and 189 juvenals of the Noddy and one Anous tenuirostris (said new to U. S. A) were banded by 17 persons. Dr. Robinson's later analysis showed that 7 birds of more than 18 years old (total of 85 such old birds so far recovered) were included, and 11 birds were first recovered this year after they were banded in 1959. A possible effect of this mass banding to chick mortality by disturbing parent-chick relation (which is rigid) is briefly considered based on a behavior observation and counts of dead chicks. A particular adult bird circled over the colony three or more times, each time returning to a particular spot but not finding the chick. Whithin a 20 × 10m square 16 small chicks (dead before banding) and 16 larger chicks, of which 4 were newly dead and other 3 were almost dying. In a 20 × 5m square 43 unhatched eggs were found (not the effect of banding). These are of course just a temporary observation. Sea-water drinking on the wing and touching the water with feet and breast observed similarly in the Sooty Terns and Noddies when they fly from the island, are possibly related to the thirsty and over-heating while resting on the island. During incubation period the breast touching may be effective for giving moisture to their egg. The writer wish to express deepest thanks to Dr. and Mrs. Austin, Mr. Mason, Dr. Robinson and others of the Tortugas party for their kindness and for giving him a rare and valuable oppotunity of this experience.