The body weights, fat weight (amount of scratched body fat) and size of gonads taken from lighthouse struck and other birds are listed. The birds were preserved by Ishizawa's weak-formalin injection method (Tori no. 81). Although the rate of weight change by long preservation should be confirmed, there seems to be no appreciable difference between short time and long preserved specimens. Skin specimens could be made even from some birds preserved over 200 days. The scratched amount of fat was more or less one half of that extracted by Soxlet method in a few cases. Some note is given about the data of the list.
A comparative analysis of migratory adaptations was made with the examples of the Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica which migrates to Siberia across the Japan Sea and the Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala which moves only along Japanese coast. These birds struck at the lighthouse of Hegura I., off Noto Penisula, Honshiu, on same dates in April, 1963 and 1964. The Rustic Bunting showed the following higher migratory adaptations than the Black-faced: 1. The body weight was heavier having much more fat, but fat-free body weight was about the same, and the body length without tail length and the trunk length (shoulder tip to cloaca) were also the same. 2. Wing length and wing span were larger, with the pointed wing tip and larger Kipp's wing-index, and the secondaries part was narrower. 3. The wing area was slightly larger and, while the primaries and seconderies areas were same in the Black-faced Bunting, the primaries area was larger in the Rustic with the expense of the seconaries area. 4. The average wing bredth was smaller, while the aspect ratio and the wing loading were larger. 5. The tail was strait, shorter and a little forked and concave, with the smaller tail area (when spread 45 degrees) and larger tail loading. These are adaptations for smooth air flow and effective tail function while migrating. 6. Had slightly longer keel of the sternum. The humerus was of the same length as that of the Black-faced, but the ulna and especially the hand bones were elongated. This caused the pointed wing shape and somewhat longer inner secondaries and tertiaries, and each wing quill was not necessarily longer than that of the Black-faced. 7. The leg bones were shorter and thinner and the total leg weight was lighter, with slightly more slender tibial muscles. 8. The fat weight was nearly twice as much as that of the Black-faced. The fat amount taken by hand was a little less than twice of that extracted by Soxlet apparatus from the whole body including tissue lipids. 9. The liver, heart and lung were slightly larger in a few material examined and the intestine was longer. These data however need confirmation. 10. The head (skull) was smaller in measurements and weight than that of the Black-faced. 11. The material used in this study had been preserved by Ishizawa's method (Tori No. 81, 1963) of weak formalin injection and remained in semi-fresh condition even after more than 200 days (Table 8). However slight change of weights should have been innevitable.
The authors found a great number of dead or dying Slender-billed Shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, in Suruga Bay from May 23 to 26, 1964, when the plankton survey was made on the "Tansei Maru" of Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo. This phenomenon was observed almost in all parts of the bay, especially in the inner part. Fourteen dead or dying birds were observed in area, 150m in width and 10km in length, in the inner part. From this observation the total number of birds in this inner part was estimated at more than 4, 000. Four specimens were used for dissection. One of these was alive and three were dead when they were collected. Blood was vomitted in two specimens. Stomach contents were absent in three specimens and stomach bleeding was found in two and cloaca was filled with feces in one. The southern wind blew ashore frequently in this period, especially strongly on May 23 and the Kuroshio current was shifted to the south and water temperature was lower than usual. The cause of this mass martality could not perfectly be clarified, but judging from the results of dissection and meteorological and oceanographical data, the unusual sea current of this year caused the scarcity of food in the normal distribution sea area of this shearwater and would have forced them to prostraction, while the strong southern winds that followed drifted exhausted birds to the shore. The authors have no definite evidence to conclude whether this mass mortality was caused by some diseases.
On May 30 and 31, 1964, Umitaka Maru, a training ship of Tokyo University of Fisheries, cruised from Uraga, Kanagawa Prefecture to Osaka. On and after May 20, newspapers reported that great numbers of Slender-billed Shearwater, Puffinus tenuirostris have been washed ashore between Kiushiu and Mie Prefectures, western Pacific coast of Japan. Comparatively abundant Slender-billed Shearwaters were observed during the cruise and four specimens were obtained, of which two were weakened birds strayed on board and two others were dead birds drifted on the sea east of Kashinozaki, Wakayama Prefecture.
One example, a dead bird, was picked up in Nagano, August 30, 1964, after the typhoon no. 14 and the other, taken alive and released after fed, was found in Tokyo, September 26, 1964, after the typhoon no. 20. The passage of typhoons and positions of birds obtained are shown by a map.
162 short reports on 'land-birds at sea' scattered in ornithological literature were reviewed with annotation (Those the original was not available were listed by titles only), with the divisions of: Western Atlantic (42), Eastern Pacific (8), Eastern Atlantic (37), Western Indian Ocean (13), the Mediterranean (28) (Most of reports before comprehensive paper of Moreau, 1953 were listed by titles only), the Red Sea (9), Western Pacific and Japanese waters (18) and South Asian Seas and Eastern Indian Ocean (7). Land birds, chiefly Passerines, have been recorded at sea mostly during migration seasons from several to some hundred miles offshore, but accidentally over a thousand miles. Even not far from the coast, less than some 20 miles, birds have been reported to come to ships exhausted and were seen dead on the water. These cases suggest that they migrate off the shore rather than along complicated coastal lines, even though they may encounter stormy weather and become exhausted. Some of them may be drifted hundreds of miles over the ocean by seasonal winds blowing out from the continent. The records plotted on the map suggest the pattern of such drifts along both sides of North America, east coast of Kamchatka, in Western Indian Ocean and North Atlantic. However, regular over-sea migrants have also been recorded in which the birds may not come to the ship or only some of them resting for a while or staying on board to feed on insects or food given by the passengers. Migratory hawks may live on such small birds on board. They have sometimes been brought back many miles by ship and reports of American birds crossing the Atlantic to the British Isles on board are increasing in literature. A Peregrine Falcon is supposed to have reached Japan from Hawaii on board a ship feeding on petrels and terns. Although rare, even resident birds have been recorded at sea. As suggested by Williams in New Zealand birds, these may be due to winds, but in some cases birds may first fly out to the sea by some innate factors. The accidental records of highly migratory birds such as the House Swallow, Lanius cristatus, Halcyon sancta, etc. (see the map) to unusual direction far over the ocean may also involve innate factors.