Annual population trends for fourteen species of birds resident in both Malaya and Japan are figured and discussed. They were tallied in the respective habitat in which they were common and the populations are compared by monthly density.
From 1st April 1964 to 31st March 1965, a total of 75 species, 6, 141 birds were ringed at 26 localities, covering 10 prefectures. The number of bird species ringed, and localities are tabled in Fig. 2. 13 recoveries (7 spp.) have been reported in Japan (outside of ringing sites) and 8 recoveries (5 spp.) from abroad. It is of interest that the above 8 recoveries included 2 Egretta alba and E. intermedia were reported from the Philippines while none of them were reported in Japan. This ringing project was financially supported by the Migratory Animal Pathological Survey, U. S. Army. We would like to express our heartfelt thanks to Lt. Col. C. M. Barnes, the director, and Dr. H. E. McClure of the M. A. P. S. for their support and kindness shown to our work. We are also grateful to the members of the Shinhama Refuge, Palace Bureau, Prof. Y. Kiyosu, and Mr. S. Matsuyama for their field cooperation in ringing birds.
Ninety-eight stomach contents of the Japanese Ptarmigan, Lagopus mustus japonicus, obtained in Japan Alps during 1926-28 and owned by Mr. Jicho Ishizawa, were kindly offered to the author for food analysis. The analyses were made by month (March to November) and individual. Twenty-five plant (13 other species, reported by other authors, were not found) and eleven animal items were identified. Animal foods are taken during July and August only by young and the females accompanied by them. Vaccinium leaves and fruits occurred in the highest frequency, next the leaves of Empetrum, and other several species are favoured, but their % frequency changed by season. The needles of Pinus pumila was not so important quantitatively (though occurred in high frequency), and according to Ishizawa, its fruits are mostly consumed by Nutcracker but about 10% are left and fall on the snow which are eaten by the ptarmigan.
1. Breeding biology of the Varied Tit Parus v. varius was studied with 35 nest-boxes (19 in 1963, 16 in 1964) at Seoul and Kwang Nung experimental forests during 1963-64. 2. The Varied Tit is a dominant hole-nesting forest bird, permanently resident throughout Korea. It usually lives in broad-leaved and mixed woods, though it wanders in winter to sparce bushy area. 3. Both sexes are engaged in nest-building 4-7 days. The nest is basically built with moss, lined inside with hairs of Water-deer, Korean Badger, Racoon Dog, bird feathers and grass roots. 4. First egg is laid on the day, or 3-4 days after, the nest was completed in the nest-box. Laying period is from early April to early June. The clutch-size varies 4-10, usually 7-8, and the egg is laid daily. 5. The both sexes incubate in turn for 12-14 days, the hatching period being May to June, and the feeding period is middle of May to early July, lasting 12-17 days. 6. First chick foods are mostly soft worms, spiders and insect larvae and as chicks grow adult insects and some vegetable matter become mixed. The food composition collected by collar method was: 54.69% insect larvae, 13.85% adult insects, 1.5% pupae, 29.59% other animal foods and 0.37% vegetable matter. The frequent larvae were Noctuidae, Geometridae, Cerruidae and Lymantridae. In adult insects Xiphidion was dominant and among other animal species Araneina occupied 26.97%. Spiders decreased and insects increased with the chick growth. 7. From the point of view of forestry, 45.32% of all food items were noxious insects, 27.71% were spiders and 26.97% were miscellaneous animal matters. Therefore more provision of nestboxes is intended. 8. Wood-board nest-box with entrance 3cm. in diameter well fitted to this tit but relatively higher ones, about 6m., were more successful, being safer from human damage.
Between October and April, many sea-birds have been found dead on the beach on Niigata coast concentrated in Kashiwazaki area. This part is south of Sado I. and east of Noto Peninsula and owing to this situation, winds and sea currents are very complicated. Since 1959 to 1965, 16 species, 73 birds were collected and the correlations with temperature and winds were considered (possibly positive with day variation in temperature and wind velocity and consequent waves). From the sea currents and the state (freshness) of drifted birds, the distribution of these birds in March and November was estimated.
On migration, Locustella fasciolata passes Honshiu from late May to mid June, and from late August to early October. Thus in spring the migration lasts 10-15 days while in autumn 15-25 days. This is the general rule in birds since they make haste in spring for breeding. In spring migration early flocks consist chiefly of males mixed with few females and later ones with more females. The lipid amount varied little by birds obtained in northern and southern Japan, and this may indicate that they migrate step by step taking food while moving.
In May and June, 1965, the author made five bird surveys in less known parts of Hokkaido. These are reported here under the headings: 1. Notes on birds along Shiretoko Peninsula (May), 2. Sea-bird survey of Kojima I., off Matsumae (May), 3. Observations of birds of Rishiri I. (June), 4. Bird survey of Cape Esan (May, June) and 5. Birds of Soya area and Rishiri. They are sea bird observations (pelagic census and breeding colonies) and notes on land birds. 1. Along Shiretoko peninsula, sea bird colonies were observed from ship at some distance. The main colony was on the west-side cliffs at Iwaobetsu chiefly consisting of some hundreds of Larus schistisagus and Phalacrocorax capillatus with Ph. pelagicus and Cepphus carbo, etc. There were a few other smaller ones but they could not be observed at close range. According to local observer, Mr. Yoshida, there appears to be some colonies of Uria aalge, Lunda cirrhata, Cerorhinca monocerata, and breeding of Fratercula and Brachyramphus marmoratus, possibly also Phalacrocorax urile is suggestive. Summer records so far known for Brachyramphus are listed and two birds were encountered this time. A flock of scores of Larus crassirostris were observed near the tip of the peninsula but the breeding was not confirmed. According to Yoshida, he saw chicks of Histrionicus with an adult bird in June, 1963. A White-tailed Sea Eagle was seen on a pack ice with some Larus schistisagus; it breeds at several places of the peninsula. Two Japanese Robins, Erithacus akahige, were unexpectedly found at rocky tip of the peninsula where there were no vegetations and some snow was remaining. Offshore census of sea birds is given in tables. 2. Kojima I. is situated in 139°50'E, 41°20'N, 20km. WSW of Matsumae, the southwesternmost tip of Hokkaido. It is a small volcanic island with a coastal line of about 7km., surrounded by steep cliffs and inhabited only by lighthouse keeper family. The breeding species consisted of Larus crassirostris, Uria aalge, Cerorhinca monocerata, Cepphus carbo and Phalacrocorax capillatus, as on Teuri I. (Kuroda, 1963). Many nest burrows of Cerorhinca were found excavated (by a dog of the lighthouse) and this puffin was apparently decreasing (but increasing at Teuri I.) judging from remains of nests on which grasses were already growing. Gull eggs were still being taken by fishermen and thus protection of the whole island is hoped. The time (May 14) was too early (the season was 10-14 days in retard this year) for Uria aalge which we saw only a few, but on May 31 some hundreds were seen by Mr. Saito. On the island some passerines on migration (both leaving winter bird such as Turdus naumanni and arriving summer birds such as Muscicapa narcissina were found). Scattered Cerorhinca and some flocks of Puffinus griseus and P. carneipes were seen in this sea area and a huge migrating flock of about 3, 000 birds (probably of the latter species) were flying northwestward off Cape Shirakami in an endless line. A flock of 300 birds of this species (definitely identified) had been observed on May 7 all making west the Tsugaru Strait. 3. Rishiri and Rebun Is. (See also 5.) situated at a little north of 45N°, west of Wakkanai, northern end of Hokkaido, were visited June 7-9, staying on Rishiri. Cerorhinca was found scattered on the sea between Wakkanai and the islands and many were non-breeding birds without the bill-nob. A small number of Puffinus tenuirostris was seen confined off Wakkanai, a great flock of about 1, 500 of P. griseus consisting of numerous small groups was making a circular movements over the sea area between Rishiri and Rebun,