1. Based on the request made by the Imperial Household to Yamashina Institute, monthly bird censuses were conducted by seven researchers in the Imperial and Akasaka Palaces in Tokyo during April, 1965 and March, 1966. 2. Census by line transect was made usually by two observers about 50m apart, once or twice per month: 15 times in the Imperial Palace (except August and September) and 11 times in the Akasaka Palace (except January to March). 3. In total 56 species (including wintering ducks and colonial herons) were recorded in the Imperial Palace and 46 species in the Akasaka Palace. 4. The number of species and individuals per census day varied 15-24 and 319-923 (2 hours course) in the Imperial and 9-24 and 150-306 (1 hour course) in the Akasaka Palaces respectively. 5. The result of each census day is shown by species in three tables (two for the Imperial and one for Akasaka Palace). 6. A comparative table is given showing the relative abundance of main species in the two palaces with indexes of: occurrence rate, mean number of occurrence, its dominance value in avifauna, recorded season and breeding evidence. 7. Specific accounts are only given briefly for main species. More migrants were recorded in spring and autumn in the Akasaka Palace, probably due to its elevated position.
During 1965-66, 7027 birds of 97 species were ringed at more than 20 localities covering 12 prefectures in Japan. The number of bird species ringed are tabled in Fig. I. 61 recoveries (18 spp.) were reported (of which 25 from abroad). This ringing project was financially supported by the Migratory Animal Pathological Survey, U. S. Army. We wish to express our heartfelt thanks to Lt. Col. C. M. Barnes, the director, and Dr. H. E. McClure of the M. A. P. S. for their support and kindness shown to our work. A special method of catching Pied Wagtail is illustrated on page 13.
The stomach contents of 82 Cuculus canorus telephonus, 56 C. saturatus horsfieldi, 59 C. p. poliocephalus and 22 C. fugax hyperythrus, 213 in total, were analysed. These material had been collected by sinior author (Ishizawa) from 14 prefectures in Japan during more than ten years since about 1925 while he was in Wildlife Bureau. For identication of Lepidoptera larvae most frequently found in the stomachs, he studied them in the field and laboratory during 1931-1950 and published three books on these difficult insects to identify. Most of Lepidoptera larvae could thus been identified correctly by the sinior author, but other insects were identified by specialists. Analysis of stomach contents were made by junior author (Chiba). It was found to be a characteristic food habit of cuckoos that a certain species of larvae was taken in large quantity at a time, only very few of others mixed with. Lepidoptera larvae occupied 91.3% of diet (frequency) in canorus, 90.0-90.3% in saturatus and poliocephalus and 86.3% in fugax which was characterized by prefering ants (Formicidae) with the relative frequency of 73.6%. Insects other than Lepidoptera were 81.8% in fugax, 45.6% in canorus, and 30.0-30.6% in saturatus and poliocephalus. There-fore from the food preference pattern, canorus-type, saturatus-poliocephalus-type and fugax-type may be recognized. Among Lepidoptera, Geometriidae larvae occurred constantly 25-36% in the four species, Notodontidae varvae 23.4-38.0%, except in fugax in which they were only 4.5%; while Limantriidae larvae occurred 22.7% in fugax and 2.0-15.5% in the others. Sphingidae larvae were favoured by saturatus, Arctiidae larvae by canorus; Orthoptera were often eaten by saturatus, Formicidae were especially taken by fugax and relatively by canorus and poliocephalus, which ate also Odonata and Diptera. Cicadidae with 'bad' smell were not rejected, but were not found in poliocephalus. There was a seasonal change of diet and stomachs contained less quantity towards autumn before migration.
In February, 1963, April, 1964 and April, 1965, the "Umitaka Maru" of the Tokyo University of Fisheries, cruised around Kusagaki-jima lying about 65 miles WSW of Sata Misaki, Kagoshima Prefecture. Flying Brown Boobies were seen as far as approximately 60 miles from the islands, and the number increased as the ship approached the islands. In April, 1965, downy chicks were found by powerful binoculars on the ledges of cliffs, some of them with the adults. When the ship approached Sumisu-to Island lying about 30 miles SSE of Bayonnaise Rocks on August 3, 1965 on her cruise southwards, some Brown Boobies were sighted near the island. The individuals of this species were also seen on ledges of the ridge of island. Other tropical or subtropical species, such as Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata, probably Common Noddy Anous stolidus, as well as Bonin Gadfly Petrel Pterodoma hypoleuca, were sometimes in sight in the vicinity. Conclusively, the observations suggest that the Brown Booby ranges as far north as the above islands, forming the northernmost limit of its breeding range in the North-west Pacific Ocean.
1. From November 19th, especially 21-24th, there was a mass inland drift of Calonectris leucomelas over the whole Kanto plain covering nine prefectures. 2. The numbers reported were: Fukushima 9, Ibaragi 166, Tochigi 10, Gumma 1, Saitama 20, Chiba 87, Tokyo 102, Kanagawa 3 and Shizuoka 2, in total 400 birds. 3. They were found alive but weakened and 323 were collected at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo and after being fed most of them were transported to Kagoshima where they were released with leg band. Others were released elsewhere and some died. 4. A disturbed weather with strong winds and heavy fogs during 19-21 November could be correlated with this accidental event. 5. Although such a weather change is not unusual in this season when winter weather becomes prevailed and occasional stragglers are drifted inland as known in Kyoto (Yoshida, 1962) and Japan Sea coast, 1965-event would have been due to an accidental coincidence of a juvenile-bird flock just left the breeding island, Sanganjima, with a sudden weather change. 6. From measurements of 226 wing lengths and 223 culmens and examination of some examples, they were mostly (perhaps at least 75%) young of the year judging from the comparison of measurements of adult breeding birds of Sanganjima. Adult flocks would have gone ahead or had stronger weather resistance and better orientation ability.
1. A total of 5, 789 Tree Sparrow Passer montanus were banded in Japan during 1924-'43 with 157 recoveries (2.71%), of which 121 (77.07%) were those banded during August and October at Kuzutsuka, Niigata, a heavy snow area. 2. In total, 60.5% of recoveries were made within 5km and 80% within 23km from banded places, and out of 110 recoveries within 23km, 91.8% were within 5km. These results represent resident populations. 3. There were no recoveries between 24-100km. But, 45 (29%) recoveries were made again between 100-600km from S-SW directions (except one from E and one N). These data represent emigrating populations and since the birds were banded during August and October and were recovered in winter months, their movements suggest the wintering dispersal. However, whether this is a mere dispersal or a true migration is not clear, and it is suggested that the emigrating population would be young groups of the year. 4. Kuzutsuka population consisted of 67.23% resident (within 23km, of which 90% within 5km) and 39% emigrating populations. The latter dispersed distances of 105-406km, while out of only 23 recoveries from birds banded at Nagaura, only 4km from Kuzutsuka, 6 recoveries were made from Okayama at 600km of distance. These 6 birds had been banded in the same period (October to November 2, 1940) and all were recovered after 4 months at Okayama (only one other bird came from Kuzutsuka). This is an evidence of group movement of a local population. 5. The periods from banding to recoveries were: within 6 months 77.37% (101), 12 months 13.14% (18), 13-17 months 6.57% (9) and 19-35 months 2.9% (one each for 19, 24, 26, and 35 months) (total 137 cases).