Seasonal distribution and ecology of migrant bird populations were studied by mist-netting and banding primarily in the area of Kyunggi-do, Korea during 1963-1966. 1. From 6 June to 25 June 1963, 99 birds of 3 species and 3 July 1964 to 31 December 1966, a total of 123, 242 birds of 124 species were banded in Korea. 196 (144 Returns) recoveries of 22 species have been reported in Korea (outside of banding sites) and 7 recoveries of 5 species from abroad. 2. At Taenung, N. E. Seoul, Korea, 11, 680 birds of the Pied Wagtail and 9, 013 birds of the House Swallow were banded in pear orchards. a. Both Wagtail and Swallow are summer residents. Wagtail arrives Korea in the beginning of March and Swallows in early April and these gregarious species gather at night into large flocks to roost while juveniles maintain their post-breeding roosts in pear orchard from June to October until the time of Autumn migration. b. Both Wagtail and Swallow maintain their roosts in the same site but they exhibit different roosting behavior. c. The time at which the Wagtails and Swallows arrive and leave the roost in relation to sunset varies with length of day, weather, however, light intensity may remain the same. d. The Wagtail gathers around the feeding ground more than 20 kilometers from the roosting site. e. Some Wagtails and Swallows banded the previous year returned and roosted in the orchard. The fact that they repeatedly roost in the same areas suggest that after breeding some birds remain in the orchard and some of them migrate southward. 3. During July 1964-October 1966, 78, 170 birds of 12 Emberiza species were banded primarily in Kyunggi-do. Emberiza rutila, Emberiza spodocephala, Emberiza tristrami and Emberiza aureola ornata are the dominant fall and spring migrants. In fall they prefer soy-bean, corn and especially millet fields while in spring they are mostly seen on wheat and barley fields. Emberiza rustica is the most abundant species during late fall and winter and they prefer open fields with bushes. Emberiza rutila migrates through Korea in May and from the beginning of August until the end of October. The sex ratio is 100 females to 155 males (11674_??_, 17761_??_). More males were caught than females each month except in September when more females were caught. Emberiza spodocephala migrates through Korean from the middle of April through the middle of May and from the middle of September through October. Emberiza tristrami migrates southward through Korea the first half of May and during October. the sex ratio is 100 females to 140 males (392_??_, 551_??_). Emberiza aureola ornata migrates through Korea during May and from early August until the end of October. Emberiza rustica migrates southward but some of them winter in Korea. The wintering period is from the early October until the end of April. The sex ratio is 100 females to 191 males (13, 450_??_, 25, 687_??_). Emberiza yessoënsis continentalis migrates to Korea around the middle of October. Some of them wander in Korea while some of them migrate southward. The wandering period is from the middle of October to the middle of February. Emberiza cioides is a permanent resident and breeds in great number in Korea. However, they migrate southward in large flocks during winter and northward during spring. The sex ratio is 100 females to 159 males (497_??_, 792_??_). Emberiza e. elegans is a resident and breeds in fairly small number in Korea, but they migrate southward in large flocks around the end of October and northward around April. The sex ratio is 100 females to 280 males (462_??_, 962_??_). Emberiza fucata fucata is a summer resident, arrives to Korea in the middle of April and most of them migrate southward in September.
Observations were made on the feeding habits of nestings of ten species, Lanius tigrinus, Butorides striatus amurensis, Emberiza f. fucata, Motacilla alba leucopsis, Oriolus chinensis diffusus, Accipiter nisus nisosimilis, Microscelis amaurotis hensoni, Garrulus glandarius brandtii, Accipiter soloënsis and Cyanopica cyanus koreensis. The investigation was made in Kwangnung experimental forest, Kyunggi-do and the nearby open field by using collar method. Accipiter nisus nisosimilis, Microscelis amaurotis hensoni, Garrulus glandarius brandtii and Cyanopica cyanus koreensis are permanent residents and the other six species are common summer residents. The following is the food that these nestlings consumed: 1. Lanius tigrinus The food they consumed was animal matter composed of; insect larvae-41.5%, insect adults-49.4%, spiders-7.69%, frogs-1.53%. The cicada, Gampsocleis ussuriensis made up 33.8% of the insect larvae. The cricket, Platypleura kaempferi made up 35.4% of the adult insects. Only one species of spiders, Clubiona jucunda was seen, 7.69% of the food. 2. Butorides striatus amurensis The food was animal matters composed of; small freshwater fishes-48.57%, Ranidae-45.71%, others-5.71%. Twenty percent of the small freshwater fishes was Zacco platypus while Hemibarbuo logirostris made up 14.28%. Among Amphibians, Rana n. nigromaculata included 22.8%. 3. Emberiza f. fucata The food was animal matter; insect larvae-63.3%, adult insects-25.64%, others-12.78%. Since 48.1% of the food items was larvae of Pieris rapae, it is most useful for agriculture. 4. Motacilla alba leucopsis The food during their nesting period was animal matter composed of; insect larvae-30.5%, adult insects-55.4%, spiders-13.9%. The commonest insect larvae were Odonata indet-22.2%. The commonest adult insects were Syrphidae indet-16.6%. Of the spiders Lycosa sp. made up 12.1% and Lycosa astrigera 2.8%. 5. Oriolus chinensis diffusus The food was animal matter composed of; insect larvae-62.36%, adult insects-20.17%, others-17.42%. It should be noted that from the initial time of its feeding until leaving its nest it consumed Dendrolimus spectabilis, a noxious forest insect which made up 45.08% of the diet. Thus it is very useful birds eliminating noxious forest insects. 6. Accipiter nisus nisosimilis The food was animal matter composed of; small passerine birds-87.5%, Ranidae-12.05%. It consumed such forest birds as Paridae. 7. Microscelis amaurotis hensoni The food was primarily insect adults: insect adults-79.65%, Mollusca-12.15%, vegetable matter-4.05%, insect larvae-2.70%, Araneina-1.35%. Homoptera was 43.35% of adult insects. 8. Garrlus glandarius brandtii The food during its nesting period was solely animal matter; insect larvae-38.80%, adult insects-28.90%, Aranenina-24.87%, adult Amphibia-15.49%. Right after hatching and until leaving its nest, Dendrolimus spectabilis-35.08%, Araneina-24.87%, Clubione jucunda-6.43% were fed. Therefore 73.48% of the total food was noxious forestry insects. 9. Accipiter soloënsis The food during the whole feeding period was primarily Rana n. nigromaculata-89.09%, but small quantity of Platypleura kaempferi-8.26%, was also fed. 10. Cyanopica cyanus koreensis The food was composed of; insect larvae-6.11%, adult insects-60.55%, Hyla arborea japonica-12.22%, vegetable matter-1.11%, Gampsocleis ussuriensis-23.39%, Platypleura kaempferi-15.55%, and Hyla arborea japonica-12.22% were the prefered food supplied during the whole feeding period.
1. Eight observations were made on the territorial behaviour of Turdus cardis during April and September, 1966, at Gotemba, Shizuoka Prefecture, 540-570m of altitude at the foot of Mt. Fuji. 2. Territories were established in relatively young chryptomeria-'hinoki' plantations and more preferably around farm house with cultivated or grassy foreyard and a small plantation often with patch of broad leaved trees. 3. Total census area covered about 49 ha, but 34 ha if non-utilized open paddies are excluded. Almost whole utilizable area was divided into territories at least 25 in number. 4. Average territory size was estimated roughly as about 1.5 ha; the smallest may be 0.75 ha and there was exceptionally large one of about 4.7 ha, though there might have existed another territory within it, and birds of two other territories were observed to invade in it for feeding. 5. A few territories were isolated by a stretch of paddy fields, but their owners were seen to fly across it (more or less 100m) to get into grouped territorial area. 6. In one case, a non-mated male maintained a small territory of about 0.4 ha through the season and continued to sing. There were about 25 breeding males and at least 5 non-mated ones, which were found along the edge of ill-grown dense chryptomeria wood and these flew to and fro singing a short excited song. 7. The following territorial defense and fightings by two or three males were observed in the early season: a) two males exchange low ground calls to confirm territorial boundary, keeping a certain buffer distance. b) Non-mated males sing a low excited aggressive song in which mimics of other birds such as Parus and Alauda are mixed. This was sang with forward posture against the oponent which is mated. This song is sometimes mixed with fragment of true song. c) The mated oponent males may sit against it a few meters apart or sing the true song within its territory, but never attacks while the other is singing the aggressive song. However, as soon as the latter finished or showed intention movement, it was chased by the mated oponent. d) A keen 'tsee' note is issued by excited competitive males to advertise their own movement. A female may also issue it probably as an alarm sign for fledged young nearby. 8. Although the census during the fledging period was not enough, fledged young were observed in 11 of about 25 territories, and fledged brood sizes were: 5 young (two), 4 young (one), 3 young (five), 2 young (two), with the average of 3.5 young per territory. 9. In two territories invasion of second male occurred in later season and competition was observed. It might happen that the female of the first male is remated with the new male as the aggressiveness of the former is weakened. This may make the second brood of the female effective. 10. The song frequency dropped as the breeding advanced, but was irregularly rivived and continued as the mean of post-breeding territorial maintenance. On September 6, almost all adults had left the breeding area, leaving some grown young.
1. Foods were collected from Blue Magpie nestlings Cyanopica cyana by collar method at two places in Shinonoi City, Nagano, Honshiu, during July 1965. Chicks were collared 60 minutes with vinyl cord. 2. 29 species of chick foods were collected, which included only one vegetable item, fruits of Morus bombycis. Among animal matters, Platypleura kaempferi, Eristalis cerealis, Armadillidium unglare, along with Morus bombycis as a plant matter, were common items at the two places, and local faunal difference and food preference of parent birds were discussed. 3. In frequency, insects occupied 72% of chick foods, comprising 22% Diptera, 9.2% Coleoptera, and 6.4% Orthoptera etc. Their frequencies as adult, young or pupae stages were shown by a graph. 4. Chick foods little differed by age and Morus fruits and some insects were given at all ages. 5. The raw weights of foods per chick were measured and twice as much were given during the middle or later nestling period compared with early stage of the chicks.