1. This is the second report on the result of monthly census (but lacking a few months) made during April 1966 and March 1967 in the Imperial Palace (4km) and Akasaka Palace (2km) by six research members. 2. The census was made by line transect through the same routes as those of the previous year. In total 64 species, with addition of 6 species to the previous year list, in the Imperial and 56 species, with 11 additions at Akasaka palace, were recorded 3. Comparisons of the census by year at each Palace and between two palaces are discussed. 4. During January to March, a flock of more than 1, 400 Carrion Crows, Corvus corone, concentrated at the Imperial Palace, returning from their morning feeding areas (E-S-W directions) from about 10.00am. Such a concentration has not been seen in the previous year. 5. In general, bird density was higher at Akasaka Palace with smaller area.
Stomach contents of the following 12 species, 202 individuals of hawks collected by the sinior author during 1924-1937 in nothern part of Japan were analysed by the junior author: Falco peregrinus(5), F. columbarius(6), F tinnunculus(13), Buteo buteo(57) Spizaetus nipalensis(6), Circus aeruginosus(5), Accipiter gentilis(14), A. nisus(41), A. virgatus(23), Milvus migrans(15), Pernis apivorus(12), and Butastur iudicus(6), The specimens were collected throughout the year but more in winter except from some buzzards, goshawks, sparrow-hawks, honey buzzards and buzzard-hawks, the last two being summer visitors. The result can be shown by the table below: It is to be noted that although many passerine birds are taken by these hawks, the Tree Sparrow, which is the seasonal pest to rice crops, far more outnumbered other species; for example, it occupied 73% of the diet of Sparrow-hawk, Accipiter nisus.
1. First detailed observation on the breeding biology of Phalacrocorax capillatus has been made by the author chiefly in 1962 and 1963. About 1, 000 photographs, taken using 750mm astronomical telescope from a distance of about 100 meters, were analysed. 2. The breeding colonies were on the top of coastal rocky islands, about 60m in height, which could be observed only from a cliff point of mainland of the same height, difficult to access. 3. The arrival to the colony, in April, is irregular and if the former site were found disturbed by man, other place is selected, although the same colony has been used for some years under predation by sea-eagle Haliaeetus albicilla. Thus the shift of colony site by year was not unusual, and the disturbance by man during a breeding season seems to cause the shift in the next year. 4. Nest material is collected from nearby and the amount of nest-pile differed by site. Nest may be completed in about 10 days but material is brought in by male until after laying. 5. Clutch size was unclear, and it might be that eggs are covered by material on leaving, since eggs were shown in no photograph. Change of incubation was made after a short ceremony and is initiated by returned bird, but in other cases, the latter (male ?) fed the sitting bird and remained standing nearby. The female usually has more white neck plumes and the male broader black area around the bare face. 6. Incubation period was estimated as 34 days based on various photograph series of the same pair. The brood size was 3 in all cases observed. 7. Usual feeding method by both parents is described and their ceremonial behaviour was still observed during this period. On one hot day, a parent was observed to disgorge water which was poured on the chicks: two times per chick, the parent returning with water four times with the intervals of 5 minutes. 8. Chicks may move out of the nest by about 40 days. In this period a returned parent pretended to feed the begging chick and flew off, but the chick did not follow. A chick was observed to flap down possibly to the water and after the flying of chicks no family bond was confirmed, each individual acting entirely at their will. 9. The growth of chicks is described by stages, their plumage is totally black first and becomes white below later.
A pair of C. c. ciconia first bred in 1964 in a flying cage three years after arriving. In this year, the family was transfered into a new cage, 26×29×12(hight)m, together with other birds. This pair, raised chicks successfully also in 1965 and 1966, almost at the same season. Their behavior and growth of chicks are described and shown by photographs.
Various types and degrees of asymmetry of ears in owls have been studied by Pycraft as earlyas in 1898 (also 1910). But, this interesting adaptive feature seems to have not been reexamined, except recently illustrated by Payne (1967) in Tyto. Here, remarkable type of asymmetry in Asiof lammeus is confirmed by photographs. Although the skull is symmetric in basic structure as Pycraftstated, a minor asymmetry could be found in more protruded squamosal wing on the right side, andperhaps compensatory slight reduction of post-orbital process of the same side was noticed. Thefacial discs can be most extensively turned over in Asio among owls. Ninox for example, has nofacial disc opercula and has normal symmetric external ears. It is to be noticed that different typesof asymmetry revealed in owls may be taken as an example of random adaptations established bynatural selection. The sygnificance of ear asymmetry for sound orientation has been discussed byPumphrey (1948), and the comparative development of the facial discs is considered in relation tohabit by Grossman & Hamlet (1965).