The University of Kyoto has dispatched a scientific exploration party to the north side areas of Nassau Mountains, West New Guinea, between November, 1963 and March, 1964. Dr. Taian Kato, the leader of the party collected sixty six (66) specimens of birds belonging to 39 species at the following four localties. (A) Area along the upper reaches of Kemabu River, between Homeo and Ugimba (elevation 3, 000-3, 500m). (B) Dogabu River, chiefly in the vicinity of Hitariba (elevation 1, 700-2, 500m). (C) Area along Dogabu River, near Beoga (elevation 1, 700-2, 500m). (D) Area along the upper reaches of Kemabu River, in the northern skirt of Carstenz Top (elevation 3, 500-4, 000m). Annotated list of the following species is given with localities, measurements and notes: Excalfactoria chinensis novaeguineae, Anurophasis monorthonyx, Rallus pectoralis captus, Gallinago megala, Macropygia n. nigrirostris, Psittacella modesta subcollaris, P. lorentzi, Eurostopodes archiboldi, Collocalia vanikorensis granti, Anthus gutturalis wollestoni, Turdus poliocephalus versteegi, Crateroscelis robusta sanfordi, Sericornis beccarii idenburgi, S. a. arfakianus Megalurus timoriensis macrurus, Rhipidula a. atra, R. brachyrhyncha devisi, Machaerirhynchus nigripectus saturatus, M. flaviventer albigula, Microeca papuana, Poecilodryas albonotata griseiventris, Pachycephalopsis poliosoma approximans, Pachycephala schlegelii viridipectus, Pitohui dichrous monticola, Paradigala brevicauda, Lophorina superba feminina, Myzomela r. rosenbergii, Toxorhamphus poliopterus maximus, Melidectes nouhuysi, M. belfordi kinneari, Oreornis subfrenatus melanolaema, Ptiloprora erythropleura dammermani, Dicaeum geelvinkianum setekwa, Pristorhamphus vesteri meeki, Paramythia montium olivaceum, Zosterops f. fuscicapilla, Lonchura teerinki, Erythrura trichroa sigillifera and Oreostruthus fuliginosus pallida.
The 5th year result, April 1969-March 1970, of monthly 2 hour bird census in the Imperial Palace, along a same route of 4.1km, is reported. The route includes pond areas with winter duck resort and summer heron colony. Total of monthly recorded species varied from 18 (June) to 31 (April), with average of 23.2. The number of birds recorded were 264-718, av. 439.2. Total number of species so far known from the Palace is 75 of which 48 were recorded in the period with only one addition, Japanese Robin which occurred on migration. Seasonal fluctuation of the number of Great Tit during the past five years, their flock sizes by month, their winter feeding sites, etc., fruits and seeds eaten by birds, records of dead birds found and short accounts on some species are added.
During the period covered by this report, April 1, 1968 to March 31, 1969, total of 19, 759 birds, 139 species were ringed at 34 localities in 21 prefectures of Japan and Southern China Sea. The number of birds ringed and released is shown in Table 1. The names of principal ringing sites and cooperating ringers are shown respectively in Table 2 and Table 3. Recoveries of birds ringed by our ringing team and its cooperators are totalled to 100 birds of 20 species, of which 21 individuals of 5 species were reported from foreign territories. Those recovered at or in close proximity to places where ringed, and less than 6 months after ringed, are not described here. Furthermore, those of Motacilla alba and Delichon urbica recovered at the ringing places, even in case of more than one year after ringed, are also excluded. Recoveries of birds ringed by the ringing team of the Forestry Experiment Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry are mentioned in Appendix, but their ringing information are not described in this bulletin. During this period, recoveries of 14 birds of 5 species ringed abroad were reported from the interior Japan. Among these, the specially interested are, one Anas acuta ringed in California, U. S. A. and three Sterna fuscata which were ringed at Midway Atoll, U. S. A. and blown to Kochi Prefecture by a typhoon.
Although white and grey forms had long been known in Japanese Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon, its scarcity prevented detailed research. Contrary to a former opinion that these were color phases, Mr. H. Sato (1957) considered them as seasonal forms and later suggested (1968) that the grey form is caused by cosmetic coloration toward breeding season. This paper presents a detailed analysis on the mechanism of this type of color change based on numerous feather samples offered to Yamashina Institute by Mr. Y. Muramoto who collected them in its natural habitat in Ishikawa for many years. Supplemental observations were made with live birds in Sado I. with valuable assistance of Messrs. K. Chikatsuji and T. Takano of Ibis protection Center. Histological studies were made by the author at Department of Zoology, Tokyo University. Some important points clarified in this paper are as follows: 1. The feather samples suggested neither of the known types of color change: 1) molting, 2) abrasion, 3) cosmetic staining with color substance in preen oil, 4) photo chemical change of biochrome in the feather, and 5) external staining (e. g. iron in water birds). 2. Under the feathers surrounding the naked face of Japanese Crested Ibis, a particular area of the skin was found producing 'black substance.' (Fig. 12). 3. A few tiny samples of this black substance fell on the snow when a captive ibis scratched that region of the head (Fig. 13, 14). These could be collected and used for chemical analysis (to be published elsewhere). 4. Prior to the breeding season, in late January through February, a characteristic behavior of rubbing the side of its head to the shoulder region was observed after bathing. This was named 'daubing behavior' (Fig. 16) and it lasted 20-30 minutes followed by normal preening. 5. The grey, or rather blackish, tint of the neck to shoulder region got deeper as the 'daubing behavior' was repeated. 6. Histologically, it was proved that the grey tint was caused by external adherance of 'black substance' to the proximal (not distal) barbules of the normal white feathers (Fig. 4-10). 7. The black substance on the feathers and those picked up after head scsatching were identical microscopically and chemically. These are supposed to come out along feather pores of the skin, since the feathers of the black substance producing area had black ring near the root of the rachis (Fig. 2, 9, 10). 8. The change from grey to white form occurred by normal post-nuptial molting (Fig. 17) and neither 'daubing behavior' nor dropping of black substance was observed after bathing in this period. 9. The 'daubing behavior' was so important in this new type of plumage color change that even during the critical period of change from white to grey form, the white plumage remained untinted unless this behavior was performed, which always occurred after bathing. Five to six bathing-'daubing behavior' sequences completed a typical grey form. The first bathing of the season was observed on a fine day in late January. 10. Physio-ethological mechanisms and the hormonal control involved were analysed (Fig. 20) and significance of the grey form was discussed eco-evolutionarily.
Thirteen examples of Corvus levaillantii japonensis obtained in Tokyo, May 27, 28, 1969, were measured, and examined anatomically. 1. Sex ratio was even, being 6_??__??_, 7_??__??_, and one of the each sex retained Bulsa of Fabricius (the famale example examined still showed a small non-pneumatic part of the skull). These, and perhaps one other male, were young of the previous year. Others were probably non-breeding 2nd year subadults, having little developed gonads in this season (Least developed in the above young of the year). One of the famale was a breeding adult having incubation patch. 2. They had little or almost no fat, except one young male which ate more animal food. 3. Body weight and all external measurements were larger in the male, and this difference was expressed by 'sexual index', S. I. which is: smaller measurement/larger measurement % (positive value in _??_>_??_, and negative in _??_>_??_), and its significance was discussed. This index ranged 88.94% (Body weight)-98.33% (Tail 1.) and all were positive. 4. In one example, the total pectoralis was 14.82% of body weight, the femoral muscles 5.66% and tibial 5.50%. 5. Length of intestine was average 882.0mm in 5_??__??_, 895.7mm in 7 _??__??_ and 'intestine index', 3√body weight/length of intestine, was calculated, which was 0.101 in the male and 0.100 in the femal. The caeca were 15-16mm. The gizzard was av. 38×28mm in size and 10.5g (1.4% of body weight) and the liver in one example was 2.74% of body weight. 6. Most gizzard and intestine (4 examples examined) contained cherry berries (their stones) with other items such as toad's part, beetles, pigeon eggshell, bird feathers and animal hairs (probably chair material) or cake piece, etc. In observation toad and rat are favored food items beside human food debris. 7. Two species of Cestodes, Passerilepis sp. and Raillietina sp. were found in all of four intestines examined (not found in the gizzard) and the numbers were counted by individual length and by its sum, i. e.: the 'total parasite length'. Younger bird (with Bulsa of Fabricius) had total parasite length of only 10cm and the intestine was clean, while others had from 85cm (scattered along the intestine wall), 137.2cm (clustered at the middle) to 191.7cm (found as two clusters) in an adult female with incubation patch. The individual length was also increasingly longer. 8. The parasite's number and total parasite length thus increase with the age of the bird and this might affect the bird's longevity or mortality. The Acanthocephala usually to be found in suburban crows (possibly C. corone) was not found and this reflects that C. levaillantii in Tokyo is permanent resident within the city zone.