The myological illustrations here presented are based on more than ten examples of Columba livia (Carrier Pigeons killed by cats), studied during 1945-46. The illustrations have been so devised as the origin and insertion of each muscle could be shown not hidden by other muscles, by restricting the number of muscles in one illustration. The originals were prepared with different colors by muscle belly, tendon and bone, but here they are reproduced by ordinal drawings. Appendicular (wing and leg) and caudal muscles only are illustrated (partly cited in author's previous works) and listed, according to Berger's (George & Berger, 1966) nomenclature, and the names used by the author in his previous works are added to the list when different from Berger's. Minute muscles, one in the wing (on radiale) and three of caudal region, are additions to Berger's list, though their further confirmation is necessary. Illustrations of muscles of Columba livia other than figured here are to be found in the literature given in this paper.
The author first noticed in 1959 the shore washed sea birds on the beach of Kashiwazaki, Niigata prefecture and has reported, since 1964, Synthliboramphus antiquus, Uria lomvia, Brachyramphus marmoratus, Cerorhinca monocerata, Lunda cirrhata, Aethia psittaculus, Rissa tridactyla, Larus argentatus, Calonectris leucomelas, Gavia stellata and Gavia arctica, found dead by oil pollution. Alcids are especially affected by the pollution and the Ancient auklet, Synthliboramphus is the most usual species. In this report, 30 examples of this auklet were selected for anatomical analysis. On 24 January 1971 numerous dead ones contaminated black by oil were found along, 280km of the beach, 5 birds in 100m at a certain part. They could be grouped into 3 categories with respect to the body weight, amount of fat and oil attached. The most severely polluted example had oil weight 50% of the body weight with least fat. Others still had some fat. The oil was found even in the digestive tract. The ship oil is still being casted offshore in Japan Sea but is drifted ashore by prevailing winds. After much effort by the author and others, the problem became seriously considered but no definite solution is reached yet.